Increasing climate resilience through an Integrated Water Resource Management Programme in HA. Ihavandhoo, ADh. Mahibadhoo and GDh. Gadhdhoo Island
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Ministry of Housing and Environment
The primary problem addressed by this project is climate change-induced decline of freshwater resources that is affecting the entire population of Maldives. Freshwater resources are scarce in the Maldives. As surface freshwater is generally lacking throughout the country (with the exception of a limited number of brackish water swampy areas in some of the islands), the key problems pertaining to freshwater security relate to the management of increasingly saline groundwater and increasingly variable rainfall patterns.
- Establishment of integrated, climate-resilient water supply and -management systems in HA. Ihavandhoo, ADh. Mahibadhoo and GDh. Gadhdhoo
- Increase participation in the development, allocation and monitoring of freshwater use in a changing climate
- Replication and up scaling of climate-resilient freshwater management
Source: Project Proposal, 2011
- Ground water aquifer rehabilitated and freshwater supply ensured in HA. Ihavandhoo, ADh. Mahibadhoo and GDh. Gadhdhoo to provide reliable, equitable and costeffective access to safe freshwater in a changing climate
- Strengthened local awareness and ownership of integrated, climateresilient freshwater management
- Improved institutional capacity to promote and enforce climateresilient freshwater management on all inhabited islands
Source: Project Proposal, 2011
Project Status:Project Funded (Approval date: 2011-06-22)
Ecosystem Based Adaptation Approach to Maintaining Water Security in Critical Water Catchments in Mongolia
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:UNDP, Ministry of Nature, Environment and Tourism
This project is working to apply the principles of Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EBA) to increase climate change resilience at a landscape level. EBA is broadly defined as “a range of local and landscape scale strategies for managing ecosystems to increase resilience and maintain essential ecosystem services and reduce the vulnerability of people, their livelihoods and nature in the face of climate change.
Component 1: Will establish eco-region level integrated land use and water resources monitoring and planning system and associated programme focusing on reduction of climate change vulnerability. The broad-scale strategies will be completed for two eco-regions to detail resilience challenges/opportunities and provide guidance for development sectors. The National Government and Provincial Governments will adopt the completed strategies as formal policy to guide future resource management decision-making. The process will include a series of economic valuations to summarize the project‟s economic impact, including opportunity costs, the potential economic impact of EBA up-scaled nationally, and the actual economic impact of the project within the two target watersheds prior to project close. This component will be co-financed with the UNDP cash co-financing to the project.
Component 2: With the majority of the project fund invested, will support communities in two watersheds to implement a number of adaptation methods well proven to restore and/or maintain ecosystem functionality while reducing climate change vulnerability. “On-the-ground” changes within these two watersheds will improve social welfare and the security of ecosystem services. Implementation will focus upon better tactics for grazing management, restoration of riparian zones, survivability of biodiversity, and efficiency of water use. Success will be measured by how well community-level implementation improves the overall integrity of water provisioning services within each watershed relevant to climate change challenges. An ecosystem-planning program will be established within each watershed, led by the soum governments, to guide implementation and coordinate future resource management decision-making. The two programs will build upon and integrate with the adopted eco-region strategies to create a coherent management structure. Community-level practices will integrate with National and Aimag ecosystem monitoring, assessment, and reporting. To ensure sustainability and long-term performance, the eco-system management programs and produced action plans will become legally binding with formal adoption by 17 Soum governments.
Component 3: Will strengthen the policy and institutional frameworks required to support national adoption and implementation of EBA principles and practices. This will include institutional and policy improvements to generate integrated, landscape level decision-making. The Component will stimulate coherent approaches for resilience impacting sectors such as surface and ground water management, grazing and pastureland management, and the management of riparian habitat. The ability of both existing and emerging institutions to monitor, assess, and plan for EBA will be enhanced. These institutions will be given the tools necessary to provide technical support for EBA implementation. A precise upscaling (marketing) strategy will be developed and implemented to disseminate and mainstream EBA approaches, including lessons learned from activities implemented under Components 1 and 2. Long-term policy, institutional and financial support for continuing and scaling up EBA will be secured.
Source: Project Proposal, 2011
- Ecosystem resilience factored into land use and water resource planning and management at the landscape level. Evidence-based decision making practiced through improved knowledge and understanding on ecosystem dynamics and resilience and impact of different land uses at the landscape level.
- Community-level implementation of EBA principles and practices integrating landscape-level land use and water resource management in two target landscapes with an increase in ecosystem resilience and increased adaptation capacity of resource users.
- Ecosystem-based adaptation approach mainstreamed in the country‟s adaptation framework and related sector policies. Decision makers, local communities and general public understand and change behaviour towards maintaining ecosystem resilience to reduce their vulnerability to climate change.
Source: Project Proposal, 2011
Project Status:Project Funded (Approval date: 2011-06-22)
This communication describes the progress Canada has made in implementing its commitments under the UN- FCCC and the Kyoto Protocol in supporting actions in Canada and internationally to address climate change. It provides an update of Canadian circumstances and policies and measures from 2006 (the end of the period covered by the Fourth National Communication) up to April 2009.
Austria has submitted its First National Communication in September 1994, its Second National Communication in July 1997, its Third National Communication in November 2001 and its Fourth National Communication in October 2006. This document is Austria’s Fifth National Communication, by which Austria is complying with the obligation of communicating information to the Secretariat of the UNFCCC as specified under Art. 12 of the Convention.
Brazilian Minister for the Environment Carlos Minc launched the country’s national strategy to address climate change, signed by President Lola on 1st December 2008.
Key commitments from the National Climate Change Action Plan include:
The Government of Mexico acknowledges that climate change represents the primary global environmental challenge of this century and that, in the medium and long-term, it represents one of the greatest threats to human development and well-being. In addition to inducing the displacement of climatic regions, more droughts, floods, intense hurricanes, glacial melting and an increase in sea level, among other effects, climate change also leads to biodiversity loss, and the deterioration of water resources and environmental services provided by ecosystems.
On June 30, 2008, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh released India’s first National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) outlining existing and future policies and programs addressing climate mitigation and adaptation.
Sadu Shakirov’s population, approximately 1,462 people (266 households), have benefitted from this CBA project. The “Sharuashylyk” irrigation canal (12 km) was restored by the project participants including the walls of the canal and five (5) water-distributing gateways. These canals are now used to save water from the autumn-early spring season. 100 hectares of land were irrigated, and 60 hectares of degraded land have been restored thru the planting of alfalfa. 30 tons of alfalfa hay and 30 tons of hay from 60 hectares of natural lands have been gathered from the irrigated lands the first year after the alfalfa was sowed, and yields of hay has increased by 20-30%. Today, the hay harvest provides forage for 500 heads of cattle for 2 months which have increased cattle weight. From these concrete results from the CBA project, the local communities now earn an income when they never have before. In the first year of the project, the local community members earned1400 USD .
Additionally, the project activities have finished successfully, and other communities have started replicating their adaptive practices and activities.
The grants from GEF have increased the resiliency of the Sadu Shakrov village residents to climate change. With the funds, the local communities were able to learn and increase their knowledge on climate change and how to adapt to it. Land in the project sites have been restored thru the adaptive practices of the communities, and yields in crops that they rely on for their livelihoods have increased by 20-30%. Additionally, the local communities now generate an income, when they never had before.
Results and Learning:
As the communities were faced with water shortage, they have learned how to save water, when to save water, and the adaptive way of how to use irrigated lands and planting of fodder crops. Fodder crops demands less watering, is resistant to drought, and therefore, it has created the basis for additional forage for livestock in winter and early spring period. In addition, seeding of alfalfa has helped to restore the fertility of degraded arable lands.
With regard to sustainability, members of the local communities have noted that the project results has given them confidence that they are able to adapt to increased climate aridity. The project activities, especially efficient water resource use and sustainable land management, have decreased the local communities’ vulnerability to climate risks and have increased their sustainable livelihood.
The project has reached the goals due to coordinated work of the local community, understanding of the activities and willingness to further project development. Further expansion of irrigated territories and the area under drought-tolerant crops will promote further animal husbandry development in the area and, improvement of living conditions of the local communities. As the neighboring communities replicate Sadu Shakirov’s activities, the adaptive practices initiated in the CBA project will continue to be implemented.
Implementing Agency:Creative Entrepreneurs Solutions (CES)
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:UNDP, the Small Grants Programme (SGP), UN Volunteers, Other partners include Green Life Trust, Ministry of Agriculture, Water, and Forestry, Agronomic Board, Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden).
This CBA project’s goal is the pilot implementation of six coping strategies to climate change vulnerability that can be duplicated on a large scale in other similar communities. It has been prepared by a small NGO, Creative Entrepreneurs Solutions (CES), through a participatory process involving different sectors of the communities.:
- Water security (flood and rain water harvesting for irrigation, livestock and fish farming); Food security (sustainable agricultural practices and land degradation combating) such as:
- Irrigated vegetable production 9using harvested flood and rain water), and
- Improved dry land crop production through soil improving management strategies such as composting, bio char, crop rotation and conservation agriculture;
- Flood and drought resistant crops (improved drought resistant mahangu varieties, mushroom, rice and sweet stem sorghum) for human nutrition sources as well as fodder security for livestock/chicken/fish fodder to boos availability of protein nutrition and incomes;
- Energy efficient stoves and renewable energy in combination with agro forestry/general reforestation and improved natural resource management;
- Awareness building interventions on climate change, coping strategies, global warming and nutrition needs.
The project seeks to achieve its goal through the following activities:
- Building awareness of climate change, coping strategies and nutrition needs whilst supporting the social mobilization of community members into Self Help Groups
- Ensuring water security with flood and rain water harvesting for agricultural irrigation, livestock and fish farming
- Ensuring food security by using sustainable agricultural practices and methods that protect against land degradation such as irrigated vegetable production (supporting HIV/AIDS affected families) using harvested flood and rain water
- Improved dry land crop production through the introduction of improved soil conservation methods such as composting (rehabilitation of degraded soil by using natural fertilizer), bio char, crop rotation and conservation agriculture such as CONTILL
- Increased usage of improved drought and flood resistant crops such as pearl millet varieties (the national staple food referred to locally as ‘mahangu’), rice, mushroom and sweet stem sorghum for human nutrition and fodder security for livestock, chicken and fish to boost availability of protein nutrition and incomes
- Energy efficient stoves and agroforestry in combination with general reforestation techniques
From the above activities, the proposed project will contribute to the development of adaptive strategies in response to climate change. They will help sustain food security and income generation with no adverse impacts to the land or other natural resources.
Project Status:Under implementation
Adapting to Water Shortages in Arid Namibia
By Servaas van den Bosch
“Normally it rains this time of year, but not a drop has fallen,” complains farmer Paulus Amutenya. “My crops are burning on the field.” It’s mid‐November in Outapi, a small farming town in Northern Namibia, not far from the Angolan border. Outapi is always hot, but this year the rains that cool the soil and allow crops to germinate are exceptionally late. For weeks now farmers have been praying for clouds to appear in the clear blue sky.
‘Tate’ Paulus wipes the sweat of his face and overlooks his few hectares of wilting crops. Groups of women dot the field, weeding between the tomatoes or watermelons. Unlike most subsistence farmers in the area Amutenya employs around a hundred casual workers who depend on him, and he is worried if he will be able to continue to employ them. “Without rain, plants are more susceptible to pests and eventually they succumb to heat stress.” He points to a watermelon with scorched yellow patches. “These melons are naturally covered by their leaves so they ripen nice and evenly, but now the leaves are burnt and the melons are ripe on the top, but not at the bottom.”
He blames the changes in climate.
“Temperatures are rising and rains are becoming more and more unpredictable over the years, but what can I do,” he shrugs.
Farming in Namibia, where the Namib and Kalahari deserts meet, has never been easy. The driest country in sub‐Saharan Africa receives a pitiful 270 millimetres of downpour per year on average. Of this 83 percent evaporates as soon as it hits the ground. Climatologists predict temperatures in the country will rise with 1 to 6 degree in the next several decades, while rainfall could drop another 200 millimetres. Already, in the past few years, rains have been erratic leading to alternating heavy floods and dry spells.
The consequences are devastating for a country where 70 percent of the people to some extent depend on agriculture.
To help farmers adapt to climate change, the Country Pilot Partnership (CPP), an alliance of seven Ministries in Namibia supported by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), has started a three year adaptation pilot project in the area.
Click here for the full story.