Overview

A large and diverse country, Mexico is considered among the most developed countries in the world, achieving a level of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita of US$13,800 in 2010 (CIA, 2011). It is also noted for being the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world133 and was the first Latin American country to join the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. However, about 44 per cent of the population continues to live in poverty (USDS, 2010) and approximately 13 per cent of Mexicans remains reliant upon the agricultural sector (CIA, 2011).

  • National Communication (NC)

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    Mexico - Fourth National Communication - 14 December 2009
    Key Vulnerabilities
    • Energy
    • Forestry
    • Agriculture and Livestock
    Potential Adaptation Measures

    Energy

    • 18 Mexican Official Standards (NOMs) were applied, 16 of which are associated with electricity consumption and two with thermal processes.
    • Implementation of thermal efficiency standards

    Forestry

    • Incorporation of about 3 million hectares for sustainable forest management;
    • Installation of 600,000 efficient wood stoves;
    • Incorporation of 2.5 million hectares of terrestrial ecosystems to the Sistema de Unidades de Manejo para la Conservación de la Vida Silvestre (UMAS, System of Wildlife Conservation and Management Units);
    • To add 750,000 hectares of forest ecosystems to the status of Protected Natural Areas,
    • To introduce planned sustainable grazing practices in 5 million hectares.

    Agriculture and Livestock

    • Land conservation and productive reconvertion;
    • Green harvesting of sugar cane to promote renewable energy use and development,
    • Rehabilitation and conservation of land grazing.
    • Conservation and recovery of vegetation in grazing areas
    • Capture and use of methane from livestock farms, through the establishment of biogas digesters.

    Mexico - Fourth National Communication - 14 December 2009 - Full Report

    Mexico - Third National Communication - 11 November 2006
    Key Vulnerabilities
    • Agriculture/Food Security
    • Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems
    • Water Resources
    • Public Health
    • Terrestrial Ecosystems
    • Disasters
    • Tourism
    • Energy
    Potential Adaptation Measures

    Agriculture sector

    • Change in corn variety
    • Increase the use of fertilizers (either in quantity or in the number of applications)
    • Drip irrigation is considered to be a useful measure at the present time, and even more so in a changing climate.
    • Build small greenhouses

    Forestry sector

    It is clear that measures for vulnerability reduction in water, agriculture and forestry should focus on an integrated treatment, because efforts in any one of these sectors require the participation of the others. The next challenge in the project is the step of actually achieving a National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy.

    Water sector

    Through administrative and financial reforms, as well as modifying water management policies and techniques, authorities in Mexico are trying to guarantee services and the preservation of the environment.

    Their objectives include:

    • promoting the efficient use of water in agricultural production,
    • extending water coverage in the country and improving the quality of drinking water, sewage systems and city works,
    • achieving integrated and sustainable water management in watersheds and aquifers,
    • promoting the technical, administrative and financial development of the water sector,
    • consolidating the participation of users and NGOs for water management and to promote the culture of its proper use, and
    • reducing risks and attending to the effects of floods and droughts.

    Mexico - Third National Communication - 11 November 2008 - English Full Report

    Mexico - Second National Communication - 23 July 2001
    Key Vulnerabilities
    • Agriculture/Food Security
    • Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems
    • Water Resources
    • Public Health
    • Terrestrial Ecosystems
    • Disasters
    • Tourism
    • Energy
    Potential Adaptation Measures
    Mexico - Initial National Communication - 9 December 1997
    Key Vulnerabilities
    • Agriculture: Regions identified as most vulnerable would be the northern and central areas of the country.
    • Human settlements Areas of greatest vulnerability: Center (Federal District, Mexico State, Guanajuato, Jalisco)
    • Desertification: 48.21% of the country’s surface area would have high levels of vulnerability. Most vulnerable states: Aguascalientes, Baja California, Coahuila, Jalisco, Colima, Nayarit, Querétaro, Guanajuato, Michoacán, Sonora, and Hidalgo.
    • Meteorological drought: Most vulnerable states: Northern Sinaloa, Jalisco, Michoacán, Guerrero, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, Campeeche, and Chiapas.
    • Forest ecosystems: Temperate forest would be very vulnerable, nearly 50% of the vegetation cover would change.
    • Water resources: The most vulnerable watersheds would be: the Panuco and Lerma-Chapala-Santiago; and the Baja California peninsula.
    • Industry and energy: Sectors with high vulnerability: Oil industry Electric industry Petrochemical industry
    • Coastal regions Regions with greatest vulnerability: Tamaulipas (delta lagoon of the Rio Grande) Veracruz (Alvarado Lagoon, Papaloapan River) Tabasco (Delta complex of the Grijalva-Mexcapala-Usumacinta) Yucatan (Los Petenes) Quintana Roo (Sian Ka’an Bay and Chetumal)
    Potential Adaptation Measures

    Mitigation and adaptation measures emerge as an answer to the effects that it is predicted global climatic change will produce, on human beings and their activities, as well as on the environment. For that reason it is important to have an analysis of the areas and geographical zones of the country that exhibit greater vulnerability to potential effects of climatic change.

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