The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan stretches over an area of over 90,000 km2 in the hot and dry region of West Asia. It is an almost land-locked country, bordered by Israel and the West Bank to the west, Syria to the north, Iraq to the east and Saudi Arabia to the southeast. The port of Aqaba in the far south gives Jordan a narrow outlet to the Red Sea. Its eastern part is largely desert; elevations therein range from 300 to 1,500 metres and annual precipitation is less than 50 millimeters. The central region of the country contains the Jordanian highlands (average altitude 900 metres), with rainfalls of up to 600 millimeters in the north. Jordan’s outstanding topographical feature is the great north-south rift, stretching from Lake Tiberias through the Jordan River Valley to the Dead Sea (the lowest point on earth, more than 400 meters below sea level). Jordan has three major rivers: Jordan River and its two principal tributaries, the Yarmouk and the Zarqa rivers. Because of its salinity and other quality problems, surface water is used mainly for irrigation. Drinking water is taken from underground aquifers and King Abdullah Canal.

  • National Communication (NC)

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    Jordan - Second National Communication - 8 December 2009
    Key Vulnerabilities
    • Agriculture
    • Water Resources
    • Health
    Potential Adaptation Measures


    • Main adaptation measures at farm level included conservation agriculture, improvement of water use efficiency, implementation of water harvesting techniques, supplemental irrigation with treated wastewater and community-based management of rangeland resources.
    • Policy and legislation options, capacity building for mitigation and adaptation assessment and monitoring of vulnerability, early warning and risk management systems, knowledge management and technology transfer, and rehabilitation of livestock systems and rural livelihoods.

    Water Resources

    • Water conservation
    • Finding additional water sources (desalination and wastewater reuse)
    • Water demand management


    • Strengthening surveillance and establishment of highly sensitive alert system by the development of health forecast system for climate sensitive diseases.
    • Prevention and control of emerging and re-emerging vector- borne diseases.
    • Strengthening the existing emergency preparedness and disaster management
    • Improving data collection on diseases related to climate change and establishing database for the collected data.

    Full Report

    Jordan - Initial National Communication - 6 March 1997
    Key Vulnerabilities
    • Water Resources
    Potential Adaptation Measures

    Water Resources

    • Decrease water demands, e.g. by increasing efficiency, reducing water losses, water recycling, changing irrigation practices
    • Develop and introduce flood and drought monitoring and control system
    • Reduce water pollution

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