On June 30, 2008, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh released India’s first National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) outlining existing and future policies and programs addressing climate mitigation and adaptation.
Sadu Shakirov’s population, approximately 1,462 people (266 households), have benefitted from this CBA project. The “Sharuashylyk” irrigation canal (12 km) was restored by the project participants including the walls of the canal and five (5) water-distributing gateways. These canals are now used to save water from the autumn-early spring season. 100 hectares of land were irrigated, and 60 hectares of degraded land have been restored thru the planting of alfalfa. 30 tons of alfalfa hay and 30 tons of hay from 60 hectares of natural lands have been gathered from the irrigated lands the first year after the alfalfa was sowed, and yields of hay has increased by 20-30%. Today, the hay harvest provides forage for 500 heads of cattle for 2 months which have increased cattle weight. From these concrete results from the CBA project, the local communities now earn an income when they never have before. In the first year of the project, the local community members earned1400 USD .
Additionally, the project activities have finished successfully, and other communities have started replicating their adaptive practices and activities.
The grants from GEF have increased the resiliency of the Sadu Shakrov village residents to climate change. With the funds, the local communities were able to learn and increase their knowledge on climate change and how to adapt to it. Land in the project sites have been restored thru the adaptive practices of the communities, and yields in crops that they rely on for their livelihoods have increased by 20-30%. Additionally, the local communities now generate an income, when they never had before.
Results and Learning:
As the communities were faced with water shortage, they have learned how to save water, when to save water, and the adaptive way of how to use irrigated lands and planting of fodder crops. Fodder crops demands less watering, is resistant to drought, and therefore, it has created the basis for additional forage for livestock in winter and early spring period. In addition, seeding of alfalfa has helped to restore the fertility of degraded arable lands.
With regard to sustainability, members of the local communities have noted that the project results has given them confidence that they are able to adapt to increased climate aridity. The project activities, especially efficient water resource use and sustainable land management, have decreased the local communities’ vulnerability to climate risks and have increased their sustainable livelihood.
The project has reached the goals due to coordinated work of the local community, understanding of the activities and willingness to further project development. Further expansion of irrigated territories and the area under drought-tolerant crops will promote further animal husbandry development in the area and, improvement of living conditions of the local communities. As the neighboring communities replicate Sadu Shakirov’s activities, the adaptive practices initiated in the CBA project will continue to be implemented.
Implementing Agency:Creative Entrepreneurs Solutions (CES)
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:UNDP, the Small Grants Programme (SGP), UN Volunteers, Other partners include Green Life Trust, Ministry of Agriculture, Water, and Forestry, Agronomic Board, Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden).
This CBA project’s goal is the pilot implementation of six coping strategies to climate change vulnerability that can be duplicated on a large scale in other similar communities. It has been prepared by a small NGO, Creative Entrepreneurs Solutions (CES), through a participatory process involving different sectors of the communities.:
- Water security (flood and rain water harvesting for irrigation, livestock and fish farming); Food security (sustainable agricultural practices and land degradation combating) such as:
- Irrigated vegetable production 9using harvested flood and rain water), and
- Improved dry land crop production through soil improving management strategies such as composting, bio char, crop rotation and conservation agriculture;
- Flood and drought resistant crops (improved drought resistant mahangu varieties, mushroom, rice and sweet stem sorghum) for human nutrition sources as well as fodder security for livestock/chicken/fish fodder to boos availability of protein nutrition and incomes;
- Energy efficient stoves and renewable energy in combination with agro forestry/general reforestation and improved natural resource management;
- Awareness building interventions on climate change, coping strategies, global warming and nutrition needs.
The project seeks to achieve its goal through the following activities:
- Building awareness of climate change, coping strategies and nutrition needs whilst supporting the social mobilization of community members into Self Help Groups
- Ensuring water security with flood and rain water harvesting for agricultural irrigation, livestock and fish farming
- Ensuring food security by using sustainable agricultural practices and methods that protect against land degradation such as irrigated vegetable production (supporting HIV/AIDS affected families) using harvested flood and rain water
- Improved dry land crop production through the introduction of improved soil conservation methods such as composting (rehabilitation of degraded soil by using natural fertilizer), bio char, crop rotation and conservation agriculture such as CONTILL
- Increased usage of improved drought and flood resistant crops such as pearl millet varieties (the national staple food referred to locally as ‘mahangu’), rice, mushroom and sweet stem sorghum for human nutrition and fodder security for livestock, chicken and fish to boost availability of protein nutrition and incomes
- Energy efficient stoves and agroforestry in combination with general reforestation techniques
From the above activities, the proposed project will contribute to the development of adaptive strategies in response to climate change. They will help sustain food security and income generation with no adverse impacts to the land or other natural resources.
Project Status:Under implementation
Adapting to Water Shortages in Arid Namibia
By Servaas van den Bosch
“Normally it rains this time of year, but not a drop has fallen,” complains farmer Paulus Amutenya. “My crops are burning on the field.” It’s mid‐November in Outapi, a small farming town in Northern Namibia, not far from the Angolan border. Outapi is always hot, but this year the rains that cool the soil and allow crops to germinate are exceptionally late. For weeks now farmers have been praying for clouds to appear in the clear blue sky.
‘Tate’ Paulus wipes the sweat of his face and overlooks his few hectares of wilting crops. Groups of women dot the field, weeding between the tomatoes or watermelons. Unlike most subsistence farmers in the area Amutenya employs around a hundred casual workers who depend on him, and he is worried if he will be able to continue to employ them. “Without rain, plants are more susceptible to pests and eventually they succumb to heat stress.” He points to a watermelon with scorched yellow patches. “These melons are naturally covered by their leaves so they ripen nice and evenly, but now the leaves are burnt and the melons are ripe on the top, but not at the bottom.”
He blames the changes in climate.
“Temperatures are rising and rains are becoming more and more unpredictable over the years, but what can I do,” he shrugs.
Farming in Namibia, where the Namib and Kalahari deserts meet, has never been easy. The driest country in sub‐Saharan Africa receives a pitiful 270 millimetres of downpour per year on average. Of this 83 percent evaporates as soon as it hits the ground. Climatologists predict temperatures in the country will rise with 1 to 6 degree in the next several decades, while rainfall could drop another 200 millimetres. Already, in the past few years, rains have been erratic leading to alternating heavy floods and dry spells.
The consequences are devastating for a country where 70 percent of the people to some extent depend on agriculture.
To help farmers adapt to climate change, the Country Pilot Partnership (CPP), an alliance of seven Ministries in Namibia supported by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), has started a three year adaptation pilot project in the area.
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Results and Learning:
ICLEI, UNESCO-IHE and IWA have authored, as part of the ‘SWITCH – Managing Water for the City of the Future’ project, a handbook on adapting urban water systems to climate change. The handbook aims to fill a gap in the adaptation field: while a lot of information is available about various adaptation topics, there is a lack of guidance for decision makers at the local level working on urban water who wish to proactively prepare for and adapt to climate change.
How to integrate climate change adaptation into national level policy and planning in the water sectorSubmitted by Jane.Cacouris on Wed, 2011-06-08 22:10
Climate change is having a significant impact on water availability, quality, accessibility and demand in many contexts. These impacts are, in turn, affecting many other sectors such as agriculture, energy and health, seriously undermining development. The poorest people, who often live in the most fragile environments and are especially reliant on water- and climate-sensitive sectors, are highly vulnerable to climatic impacts. It is the poor who are being hit first and hardest.
This Report showcases the UNDP-GEF adaptation portfolio, focusing on both the principles underlying the UNDP-GEF approach to adaptation programming and the key processes involved in removing barriers to successful adaptation measures. The report examines the emerging achievements of UNDP-GEF initiatives around the world and explores the future of low-emission climate-resilient development.
The Africa-Asia Drought Risk Management Peer Assistance Network, May 2011 Newsletter includes information on:
- The AADP Survey and Requests for Participation
- Resources and Networking Opportunities
- Event and Training Opportunities
- Employment/Grant Opportunities
- Useful Links on Drought Status Updates
A B S T R A C T
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:UNU-EHS, UNESCO-IHP (International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO), UNU-INWEH (International Network on Water, Environment and Health), UN-Water Programme on Capacity Development
Within the project, social-ecological indicators of vulnerability with respect to groundwater are developed. To characterize the vulnerability of selected communities facing various types of groundwater degradation processes or for which groundwater increases freshwater supply, four case study areas were selected for the project research: One in Egypt, one in Iran and two in Vietnam.
The overall objective of the project is to address the threats to human security and well-being currently posed by water scarcity and water quality degradation in developing countries and the role of groundwater management and protection in alleviating such threats.
The main objective of the research project is to adapt and apply vulnerability assessment methods to determine the vulnerability of communities who face freshwater supply problems, with an emphasis on groundwater. Groundwater can play a major positive role for the livelihoods of communities facing water supply shortages but can also be a threat when the resource becomes degraded.
Dr Fabrice Renaud
Tel.: + 49-228-815-0211
Project Status:Competed (2008-2010)