Climate Variability and Change in Zimbabwe

Author(s):
GoZ-UNDP/GEF: Coping with Drought and Climate Change
Year:
2010
City:
Harare
Summary:

Projections of future climate depend on the future level of heat trapping gases. Climate projections for Zimbabwe are for a warmer future climate. It is estimated that there will be:

  • Warming of 0.5 to 2 ºC by 2030 and 1 to 3.5 ºC by 2070 compared to the 1961- 1990 average.

Sustainable Land, Water and Biodiversity Conservation and Management for Improved Livelihoods in Uttarakhand Watershed Sector

  • Project details

  • Implementing Agency:
    World Bank
    Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:
    World Bank, Watershed Development Department, Uttarakhand
    Summary:

    The project objective is to restore and sustain ecosystem functions and biodiversity while simultaneously enhancing income and livelihood functions, and generating lessons learned in these respects that can be up-scaled and mainstreamed at state and national levels.

    Project Components:

    1. Watershed planning through community participation
    2. Controlling land degradation through the SLM approach at watershed level
    3. Fostering markets for NTFPs
    4. Biodiversity conservation and management through watershed planning and community participation

    5. Adaptation to Climate Change

    6. Documentation of Best (Worst) practices to share within the state as well as nation-wide through the SLEM program

    7. Project management

    Expected Outputs:

    20 Participatory Micro Watershed Management (MWS) plans completed for implementation

    * 40-50% increase in number of farmers practicing improved SLM techniques in targeted MWS
    * 20-30% of the area in selected MWS under improved SLM techniques.
    * Increase in availability of water in the dry season by 5% in the treated MWS.
    * Increase in vegetative cover by 10% in the treated 20 MWS.
    * Implementation of 5 to 10 alternative technologies and approaches for enhancing water availability for agriculture and other domestic use.

    * Reduction in dependency of 2000 households on forest for fuel wood.
    * At least 50% of targeted households enter market with pine briquettes (produced from pine needles).
    * Domestication and cultivation of at least 5 local medicinal and aromatic plants by communities in 20 micro watersheds.
    * 10% increase in opportunities for sustainable alternative livelihoods (Non farm based livelihood options)
    Increase in direct and indirect evidence of presence of key species of flora and fauna in 20 MWS.
    * 10% increase in tree and other vegetative cover in the 20 MWS.
    * 50% reduction in incidence of fire in treated MWS.

    Study on impact of climate change on mountain ecosystems completed.

    * Implementation of strategy for managing impact of climate change in mountain ecosystems at the end of the project.

    At least 5 to 10 new and innovative techniques and approaches documented, disseminated and up-scaled within the Uttaranchal state.

    Contacts:

    Mr. SUDHIR MITAL
    Joint Secretary and GEF Operational Focal Point India
    Ministry of Environment and Forests
    Paryavaran Bhawan
    CGO Complex, Lodhi Road,
    New Delhi
    Tel: 011-24363956
    Fax: 011-24369192
    mital_sudhir@nic.in

    Mr. M.H.Khan
    Chief Project Director & Secretary
    Watershed, Watershed Management Directorat, Indira Nagar Forest Colony, Dehradun (Uttarakhand)
    Tele 0135-2768712, 2712802
    Fax 0135-2762839, 2760170
    e-mail: wmd-ua@nic.in, wmd@vsnl.com

    Malcolm Jansen, Regional GEF Coordinator (South Asia Region)
    World Bank
    GEF Agency Contact Person
    Tel. and Email:1 202 458-2748

    Project Status:
    CEO Endorsed
    Project Details
    Funding Source:
    GEF Trust Fund - Strategic Priority for Adaptation (SPA)
    Financing Amount:
    97,490,000
    Cofinancing Total:
    90,000,000

Piloting climate change adaptation to protect human health in Kenya

Summary:

Kenya Project Objective

To strengthen national focus and adaptive capacity to prevent epidemic highland malaria in Kenya.

Health Concerns and Vulnerability to Climate Change

Malaria has always existed in Kenya, however in the past, the higher altitudes of the highlands region limited highland malaria transmission to seasonal outbreaks, with considerable year-to-year variation.

Climate change is projected to make malaria control more difficult in many areas of Kenya.  In areas where malaria already occurs, transmission intensity is expected to increase along with the length of the transmission season. It is also expected that malaria will spread into new locations, particularly the higher altitudes of the highlands, where its prevalence is not currently actively monitored or forecasted. Communities living at altitudes above 1,100 meters are more vulnerable to malaria epidemics due to lack of immunity, lack of preparedness, climate variability and other factors. 

Approximately 13 to 20 million Kenyans are at risk of malaria, with the percentage at risk increasing as climate change facilitates the movement of the malaria vector up the highlands.

Studies into the affect of climate change on health in Kenya also reported increases in acute respiratory infections for ASAL areas; emergence and re-emergence of Rift Valley fever; leishmaniasis and malnutrition.  Floods, occasional outbreaks of waterborne diseases e.g. cholera, dysentery and typhoid have been reported in lowland areas.
 

Adaptation Experience:

Expected Benefits

The most significant benefit envisioned to arise from this project is the reduction in the burden of highland malaria epidemics. 
Additional benefits include:

Results and Learning:

The pilot project will provide training and development of tools to prepare malaria control programs to understand the influence of climate change and variability on the transmission risks of malaria in focalised areas.  A model for predicting highland malaria was developed in 2006 and validated with previously observed malaria epidemics. It indicated a very high utility in predicting malaria epidemics three months in advance at areas higher than 1800 m. This project aims to take the model to the next step by operationally validating it and developing better tools for malaria forecasting to support decision-making on public health interventions that help prevent epidemics. To be able to do this effectively the following areas of adaptive capacity development will the specifically targeted in the project:

  • Improved use of weather forecasting - Forecasting through global weather networks can provide the data needed to predict malaria epidemics. Currently there is limited access to short-term and long-term health specific weather information at the community, district and national levels.
  • Improved disease prediction capacity - The development of an Early Warning System will significantly improve preparedness for malaria epidemics, despite current deficiencies in the quality of routinely collected health data. 
  • Improved epidemic preparedness, and disease detection - Districts have the capacity to develop plans for epidemic preparedness and response, however timely availability of the required resources has been a challenge. Most districts have adequate data to calculate threshold levels for existing epidemic detection only. 
  • Improved outbreak response - Many barriers to effective response currently exist and will be addressed in the project.

 

Kenya Project Outcomes and Outputs
Outcome 1: Climate-sensitive health risks are identified with sufficient lead-time for effective response
 
Outcome 2: Capacity of health sector institutions to respond to climate-sensitive health risks will be improved
 
Outcome 3: Disease prevention measures piloted in areas of heightened health risk due to climate change
 
1.1: Climate-sensitive health risk data are reported in timely and reliable manner to disease control agencies.
 
2.1: Clarified and harmonized institutional mandates and procedures to respond to climate risks to public health.
 
3.1: Advance planning of responses for pilot regions.
 
1.2: Climate data are reported in timely and reliable manner to disease control agencies. 2.2: Training syllabus and long-term support mechanisms for community and national level health  protection from climate change developed.
 
3.2: Preventative interventions applied on the basis of plan, in response to warning system information.
 
1.3: Climate change-induced changes and drivers of health-risks are determined.
 
   

 

Sustainability:

Not Yet Applicable

Replication:

Not Yet Applicable

Funding Source:
GEF-SCCF

Piloting climate change adaptation to protect human health in Jordan

Summary:

Jordan Project Objective

To increase adaptive capacity to respond to health risks resulting from water scarcity induced by climate change in Jordan.

Key Health Concerns and Vulnerability to Climate Change

Jordan is ranked among the poorest countries in the world in terms of water availability. Resources are already seriously limited and are far below under the water poverty line of (1000) m3 per capita per year. The threat of climate change will increase water scarcity. The lack of water and secondary effects of these changes are considered as the highest priority threat to health in Jordan.
 
Water scarcity will have a direct impact on the health of Jordanians. In 2005, a WHO/UNEP project determining minimum water requirements for health in Jordan showed a linkage between the per capita water consumption and the incidences of diarrhoea.

Due to the serious vulnerabilities of water scarcity, the national Government has prioritized the use of clean water for domestic supply. This should avoid much of the direct health risks from water scarcity: However, the proposed increase in use of wastewater reuse as an alternative water supply could raise a series of health risks.  Unless adequately managed, both untreated and to a lesser extent treated wastewater poses significant risks to health.

Increasing use of wastewater in agriculture, driven by climate change, will therefore increase the potential of intestinal diseases and exposure to toxic chemicals for farmers, consumers, and neighbouring communities.
 

Adaptation Experience:

Expected Benefits

The greatest benefit expected from this project is the elevated level of national preparedness and adaptation to protect human health from a key risk associated with climate change and variability. Other expected benefits include:

Results and Learning:

This project will focus on; (i) strengthening monitoring and surveillance capacity, (ii) development of the necessary institutional and regulatory framework for safe use of wastewater; and (iii) increasing the capacity related to health protection measures and pilot testing these in the field.  To achieve this goal, several adaptive capacity issues will be addressed:

  • Standards and criteria - The use of treated water in agriculture and points of monitoring treated wastewater effluent is currently unregulated there is also no reuse criteria related to hygiene, public health and quality control or  irrigation techniques, degree of wastewater treatment, and choice of areas and types of crops to be irrigated.
  • Monitoring - The lack of efficient control and monitoring on safe practices of wastewater reuse in agriculture.
  • Capacity - The lack of trained personnel both in the competent authorities and the treatment plants.
  • Communication - The low level of awareness of the farmers and the public at large and the lack of communication and information dissemination between different parties involved.

 

Jordan Project Outcomes and Outputs
Outcome 1: A comprehensive and integrated monitoring and surveillance systems for wastewater reuse activities is in place.
 
Outcome 2: Regulatory and institutional frameworks for management of health risks associated with increased wastewater reuse in unrestricted agriculture are improved and implemented.
 
Outcome 3: Health protection measures for safe wastewater reuse are defined and implemented in X pilot sites.
 
1.1: Coordination and implementation of existing monitoring systems of quality of treated wastewater used in agriculture are improved. 2.1: National health guidelines or standards for safe wastewater reuse are developed and promoted. 3.1: A manual and operating procedure on health protection measures for all vulnerable groups (farmers, nearby communities, and consumers) is developed.
1.2: Coordination and implementation of existing monitoring systems for food safety are improved. 2.2: Institutional responsibilities to operationalize the national health guidelines for safe wastewater re-use are defined. 3.2: Operational wastewater reuse safety plan, applying the provisions of the national guidelines on safe wastewater reuse, is developed and implemented at 10 selected sites.
1.3: Heath and epidemiological surveillance programs provide reliable data on wastewater-related diseases, linked to water and food quality monitoring.  2.3: A legislative tool to define institutional responsibilities for different components of the system is issued. 3.3: The manual and lessons learnt from applying the safety plan at the site are disseminated.
1.4: Social acceptance of agricultural products irrigated by treated wastewater is increased. 2.4: Institutional capacity needed to execute the system is established. 3.4: A mechanism for implementation of the needed safety plan at all farms using treated wastewater is established and enforced.
 

 

Sustainability:

Not Yet Applicable

Replication:

Not Yet Applicable

Image(s):
Funding Source:
GEF-SCCF

Piloting climate change adaptation to protect human health in Fiji

Summary:

Fiji Project Objective

To increase the adaptive capacity of the health sector to respond to climate sensitive risks.

Key Health Concerns and Vulnerability to Climate Change

Fiji has conducted a study looking at which afflictions have a clear link with climate change. Dengue fever, diarrhoeal diseases (food and water borne) and nutrition-related illnesses were all shown to be linked to climate and have the potential to worsen with increasing climate change and variability.

Climate change (and the associated temperature rise) will impact dengue-fever by increasing the frequency of epidemics, as well as the possibility that a larger proportion of the population will be affected by each epidemic. With severe climate change there is even a chance that dengue will become endemic rather than occur in isolated epidemics. Improper water storage practices in water stricken areas have also been associated with an increase in mosquito breeding sites and the risk for related diseases.

Diarrhoeal disease may become more common if Fiji becomes warmer and wetter and if droughts and tropical cyclones occur more frequently, disrupting water supplies and sanitation systems.

Nutrition-related illnesses are most likely to be affected by increases in frequency and/or magnitude of tropical cyclone and drought events. Further, it is also likely that if climate change leads to economic and social disruption and environmental degradation, disadvantageous effects on health may be serious.
 

Adaptation Experience:

Expected Benefits

The greatest national health benefit of the proposed project is having a functional Health Information System that is capable of generating Early Warning Systems for Climate Sensitive Diseases. Other linked benefits include:

Results and Learning:

This project has been designed to increase the Ministry of Health’s capacity to monitor, assess and respond to hydro-meteorological disasters (HMDs) and Climate Sensitive Diseases (CSDs) and thus reduce health risks associated with climate change and variability.  In order to be able to achieve this goal, several specific needs have been identified:

  • Mainstreaming and planning - Climate Sensitive Diseases need to be incorporated in the Strategic Planning stages of the Ministry of Health and specifically reflected in the National Health Outcomes as well as the Disaster Preparedness Plans and the National Contingency Plans for Drought and Floods.
  • Evaluation - National policies and plans have to be evaluated with specific attention to Watershed and Water Resource Management.
  • Assessments - Incorporation of Environmental and Health Impact Assessment (E&HIA) as an integral part of new land and infrastructure development approval in addressing issues involving climate change adaptation to protect human health.
  • Response - Intensifying surveillance and response programmes for CSDs during HMDs and other disasters and enhancing activities to rapidly and effectively respond to HMDs and CSDs with specific attention on psychosocial intervention.

 

Fiji Project Outcomes and Outputs
Outcome 1: An early warning system providing reliable information on likely incidence of climate sensitive health risks.
 
Outcome 2: Capacity of health sector institutions to respond to climate sensitive health risks based on early warning systems improved.
 
Outcome 3: Disease prevention measures piloted in areas of heightened health risk due to climate change
 
1.1: Climate sensitive health risks/CSD reporting system with prediction modeling. 2.1:  Clarified and harmonized institutional mandates and procedures to respond to climate risks to public  health. 3.1: Community members are aware of climate change on their community and take actions to make adaptations to minimize potential health risks.

1.2: Institutional strengthening of health and key multisectoral partners in data management across sectors.

2.2: Health professionals in selected pilot regions have the capacity to respond to climate  sensitive health risks based  on early warning systems. 3.2: Community members are aware of CSDs, what to do when symptoms develop and how to take preventative  measures to avoid them
1.3: Timely dissemination of data and advocacy. 2.3: Health professional in selected pilot regions have the capacity to effectively respond to HMDs and CSDs with specific attention on psychosocial intervention. 3.3: Community members are aware of the effects of climate change on their community and take actions to make adaptation to minimize potential risks.

1.4: Information systems supporting integrated assessments of climate change and risks in management and long term health planning.

  3.4: Detailed Communication Plans in place (for Outcomes 1-3).

 

Sustainability:

Not Yet Applicable

Replication:

Not Yet Applicable

Image(s):
Funding Source:
GEF-SCCF

Piloting climate change adaptation to protect human health in Barbados

Summary:

Barbados Project Objective

To strengthen national adaptive capacity to address health issues related to climate change attributable water scarcity.

Key Health Concerns and Vulnerability to Climate Change

Barbados is already classified as a water scarce country.  A further reduction in the availability of water, due to changes in precipitation patterns could lead to serious health impacts.  Climate change is expected to affect the quantity and quality of available water.  Previous projects concluded that sea level rise causing saline intrusion and changing weather patterns will adversely affect the water supply.  With a limited water supply in the future there will be competition between various sectors with regards to the use of water.

Water scarcity can cause a variety of health problems by reducing the amount of water available to practice basic hygiene and by increasing the risk of chemical and microbial contamination; these can lead to gastrointestinal diseases and other health risks.  Treated wastewater will be needed for non-potable purposes in the future; this will require effective management of the resultant health risks. 

Barbados has the highest rate of dengue fever in the Americas.  Studies in the Caribbean show an association between climate variability and increasing incidence of dengue fever. Rainwater storage is being promoted as an adaptation option to increase availability of freshwater, however, environmental health officers report an increase in the Aedes aegypti index due to mosquito breeding in domestic rainwater storage tanks.  To reduce the negative impacts on public health, there are requirements to improve storage facilities to eliminate vector breeding, provide technical guidelines with regards to the construction and maintenance of water tanks, and to increase public awareness with regards to effective and safe water storage. 
 

Adaptation Experience:

Expected Benefits

The most substantial benefit expected to arise from this project is the reduced incidence of dengue fever while increasing water safety and
availability.
Other significant benefits include:

Results and Learning:

This project will include two areas of action. The first will use treated wastewater to recharge an aquifer, while minimizing  health impacts. 
The second will focus on using wastewater for irrigation, while ensuring no increase in adverse health outcomes.  Results from the
pilot projects will be used to develop water quality standards for the use of treated wastewater, policies and procedures to ensure
adequate aquifer recharge and safe and effective use of wastewater for irrigation, and increase the proportion of the community who are
aware of the need for the use of treated wastewater.  These results will be achieved through addressing the following adaptive capacity
issues:

 

  • Resources - There is a lack of sufficient national capacity in terms of human and financial resources for incorporating climate change risks into health sector activities.
  • Governance - There are a lack of guidelines and legislation for water storage. This means that any new storage facility that is developed does not take into consideration climate change and the related health impacts.
  • Waste water capacity - There is also a lack of capacity with regards to wastewater reuse issues. Barbados has little experience with regards to utilizing wastewater for non-potable purposes or for aquifer recharge. Human and technological capacity can be improved in this area.
  • Communication and Information - There is a significant lack of information and therefore communication on climate change and it impacts in Barbados. This includes those in the health sector as well as the general public.  Linked to this, there is a shortage of communication to the general public on climate change issues and how certain diseases, particularly dengue are related to climate.

 

Barbados Project Outcomes and Outputs
Outcome 1: Policies and Programs are implemented to ensure health risks do not increase as a result of using treated wastewater to recharge aquifers and for irrigation. Outcome 2: Public acceptance of the use of treated wastewater for non potable use. Outcome 3: Public safely stores water to prevent the breeding of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.
1.1: Develop Procedures and guidelines for the effective recharge of aquifers using wastewater. 2.1: Social Acceptance of the use of treated wastewater.

3.1: Enhance current rainwater storage facilities for the prevention of the breeding of Aedes aegypti mosquito.

1.2: Develop Strategies, policies and procedures for the use of wastewater for irrigation, ensuring that the quality and safety of agriculture crops is assured.    
1.3: Develop guidelines and standards for the safe use of wastewater.    
1.4: Develop monitoring systems for using wastewater in agriculture and aquifer recharge.    

 

Sustainability:

Not Yet Applicable

Replication:

Not Yet Applicable

Image(s):
Funding Source:
GEF-SCCF

Piloting climate change adaptation to protect human health in Uzbekistan

Summary:

Uzbekistan Project Objective
To pilot adaptation measures in Tashkent and Syrdarya provinces that will increase adaptation capacity of health care system in these provinces to cope with climate induced diseases.

Key Health Concerns and Vulnerability to Climate Change
Uzbekistan will have significant health affects caused by climate change and rising temperatures. Most of the health problems are related to water and its availability. Water Borne diseases play a major role in Uzbekistan's health issues. More than 30% of household's nationwide lack quality drinking water and over 1000 settlements have no potable water at all. The water quality is poor with microbial and chemical pollution due to insufficient infrastructure to treat waste water and purify drinking water. Bacterial pollution increases in warmer temperatures and is reflected in the number of cases of intestinal diseases during summer.
As an example, bacterial dysentery increases by a factor of 3 in the summer. Dust storms are a particular problem for Uzbekistan and water shortages and increasing aridity caused by climate change coupled with land degradation problems have aggravated the desertification processes. As a major consequence, this has resulted in an increased number of dust storm events. Excessive exposure to dust constitutes a major health risk for many parts of the country already. For instance, Karakalpakstan exceeds the maximum safe threshold of the concentration of total suspension particles (TSP) by more than a factor of 2.  Winds transport the sand particles for long distances extending the geographic boundaries affected by this phenomenon and over 5.5 million people have become increasingly affected by the dust storms.

Adaptation Experience:

Expected Benefits

The most significant benefit expected from this project is the reduced number of acute intestinal, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases that are induced by climate change. Other benefits include:

Results and Learning:

The project aims to reduce negative impacts of climatic drivers on health by equipping health care personnel and the wider population with essential tools and knowledge to prevent the detrimental effects of climate on human health. The effective prevention will be monitored through the reduction of the risk of morbidity and mortality of acute intestinal, cardio-vascular and respiratory diseases induced by climatic factors. It will achieve this by addressing the following barriers:

  • Knowledge - Health care system personnel are not fully aware of the relationship between climate change and variability and health impacts. There has been no specific training of the personnel in regard to adaptation to climate change and mitigating its negative health impacts.
  • Capacity - The level of knowledge and skills to prevent diseases connected with climatic factors are also limited among the general population.
  • Monitoring and surveillance - The climate and health monitoring and surveillance systems are not conducted at the right geographical and temporal scale that would allow observations of trends and make advance forecasts to direct interventions against climate sensitive diseases. 
  • Research - No mechanisms currently exist to give early warning to the health system and undertake preventive measures. No research is currently conducted to observe the trends and the health system does not have clearly developed indicators that would give a chance to react. Thus no early warning system has been developed.   

 

Uzbekistan Project Outcomes and Outputs 

Outcome 1: An early warning system that provides reliable information on likely incidence of climate-sensitive health risks established Outcome 2: Skills and knowledge of health care personnel to cope with climate sensitive diseases enhanced and awareness of the population to take self-preventive measures for climate-induced diseases are increased Outcome  3: Action plans to address climate sensitive diseases successfully implemented within the 2 study provinces
1.1: Cooperation agreement on information flow sharing between governmental agencies is reached. 2.1: Capacity building training programs for medical personnel and primary care workers on the relationship between diseases and climate developed and introduced. 3.1: Intervention plans for climate-sensitive health outcomes implemented within the study regions.
1.2: Computer-based information system established to share climate change and health information to Government decision makers in the two pilot states. 2.2: Increased awareness raising to the local population in the health risks associated with climate change and how to take self-preventive measures against climate sensitive diseases. 3.2: Effectiveness of interventions will be monitored.
1.3: An early warning system of potential health impacts of climate events on vulnerable groups will be designed and tested.    
1.4: Contingency plans for health care system developed in the event of adverse climate variation.    

Sustainability:

Not Yet Applicable

Replication:

Not Yet Applicable

Image(s):
Funding Source:
GEF-SCCF

Piloting climate change adaptation to protect human health in Bhutan

Summary:

Bhutan Project Objective

To strengthen national capacity to identify and prevent adverse climate change related health outcomes in Bhutan.

Key Health Concerns and Vulnerability to Climate Change

Bhutan suffers from high rates of a series of climate-sensitive health burdens.  Projected temperature rise (higher in mountainous areas than elsewhere in the world) is likely to increase the probability of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF); increases in the geographic range and incidence of vector-borne diseases, particularly malaria and dengue; and increase in the incidence of water borne diseases. With an estimated 2,674 glacial lakes in Bhutan, and 24 considered potentially dangerous, GLOF’s represent a major climate change concern in the country. Major incidents of glacial lake outbursts have been documented 1957, 1960, and 1994.  Flash floods and landslides are also common during the monsoon period of June to August. 

Vector Borne diseases are becoming more prevalent in Bhutan due to the increasing temperatures. Two types of malaria are prevalent in Bhutan: the more severe Plasmodium falciparum (30-60% of cases) and Plasmodium vivax with over 50% of the population residing in malarial areas.  Dengue is an emerging infectious disease in Bhutan.  Dengue was first documented in Bhutan in 2004 and is now endemic during the monsoon period.

Diarrhoeal diseases represent a significant cause of morbidity in Bhutan for the last decade and contribute to about 10-15 % of the morbidity cases.  Climate change has also influenced water resources due to drying up of water sources or contamination due to flooding, increasing incidences of diarrhoeal disease.
 

Adaptation Experience:

Expected Benefits

The greatest national benefit envisaged in the implementation of this program will be the enhanced awareness and capacity of health workers and the community at large.
Additional benefits include:

Results and Learning:

This pilot project will provide better information and surveillance of climate change related health risks in Bhutan. Improved data collection will allow the country to monitor and receive early warnings and thus the opportunity to prepare and respond to potential health risks.  The project will also provide training and development of tools for health providers to understand the influence of climate change and variability on the transmission of vector borne diseases, extreme weather events and other health issues. To be able to do this effectively the following areas of adaptive capacity have been identified to be particularly targeted by the project:

  • Metrological and surveillance data - Bhutan has very limited metrological data and sparsely located metrological stations. There is also very limited surveillance for climate-sensitive health outcomes, resulting in insufficient data and lack of awareness of the possible health impacts of climate change across all government sectors including health.
  • Resources - There is a lack of sufficient national capacity in terms of human and financial resources for incorporating climate change risks into all levels of health activities.
  • Climate change mainstreamed - National Programs dealing with the climate sensitive diseases like the National Vector borne Disease Control Program (VDCP), ARI and Diarrhoeal Disease programs, Water and Sanitation programs do not currently take climate change into account.
  • Improved coordination - A new Environmental Health program has been formed in the Ministry of Health to coordinate and take through the climate and health initiatives.

 

 

Bhutan Project Outcomes and Outputs
Outcome 1: Risk Assessment and integrated surveillance enhanced for effective management of climate sensitive health risks. Outcome 2: Community and health sector institutions have improved capacity to respond to climate-sensitive health risks.

Outcome 3: Emergency preparedness and disease prevention measures implemented in areas of heightened health risk due to climate change.

1.1: Vulnerability and impact assessment determines high-risk areas and populations, and establishes the disease burden (baseline) of climate sensitive diseases. 2.1: Professional skills and health system strengthen in areas identified to have higher risks of extreme weather events or disasters, and epidemic diseases by providing training, capacity building and institutional support. 3.1: Implementation of Health sector Emergency Contingency Plan.
1.2: Integrated surveillance and alert network system piloted across high-risk (riverine and highland) areas to monitor and provide early detection of changes in climate sensitive diseases and health risks. 2.2: Strengthened awareness of climate relevance to health amongst national policy makers, and improved multi-sector health coordination improves effectiveness of prevention, monitoring and management of health risks. 3.2: Scale up and targeting of community level interventions for control of water and vector borne diseases, mental health and nutritional issues.
  2.3: Increased community awareness, capacity and empowerment helps communities prepare for and cope with increased stresses on the community posed by climate change or emergencies.  

 

Sustainability:

Not Yet Applicable

Replication:

Not Yet Applicable

Image(s):
Funding Source:
GEF-SCCF

Piloting climate change adaptation to protect human health in China

Summary:

China Project Objective

To strengthen the national capacity to respond to the increased health risks due to heat waves in China. 

Key Health Concerns and Vulnerability to Climate Change

China, with its fragile ecological environment, is vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. In recent years, China has experienced more frequent and higher intensity extreme weather events. Floods, heat waves, freezing rain, snow weather etc which were once rare now happen on a regular basis causing great harm to health and society. The largest impact on health from climate change in China is heat; particularly in urban environments which can change the incidence and mortality of heat or cold related disease.

China experienced extremely hot summers in 1988, 1990, 1994, 1998, 1999, 2002 to 2008, resulting in thousands of excessive deaths. Mortality was particularly high among those 60 years of age and older, and heat waves present serious risks to infants. It is estimated that the number of deaths caused by the recorded heat waves is 2-3 times above normal summer periods. These deaths could be greatly reduced with an early warning system in place.  Heat waves can also increase the morbidity and mortality due to cerebro-cardiovascular and respiratory system diseases. 

Cerebro-cardiovascular diseases already have a huge impact in China, with the country having the highest morbidity of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases in the world. 45% of all deaths in China, is due to cerebro-cardiovascular diseases. The health care cost and labour force loss from cerebro-cardiovascular diseases is more than US$2,500 million per year.  This burden will only increase with climate change and rising temperatures.
 

Adaptation Experience:

Expected Benefits

The most significant benefit of implementing effective adaptive measures will be the reduction of the incidence and mortality of the cerebro-cardiovascular diseases, thus improving people's quality of life and greatly reducing the social-economic burden.
Other benefits include:

Results and Learning:

The project will focus on reducing the impacts of climate change on cerebro-cardiovascular diseases in the three project cities through the implementation of heat wave forecasting and early warning systems designed to protect human health. The project will do this with a focus on the following capacity development:

  • Data collection - Additional data collection and research is needed to quantify the health risks of climate change and to identify effective and efficient adaptation options.
  • Data sharing - There are still some gaps in data sharing among environmental, meteorological and health agencies. Therefore a scientific research database will be created using national and international meteorological and disease data; this database will provide accurate, prompt, and authoritative disease monitoring and will produce products relevant for disease prevention.
  • Communication and Cooperation - The project will strengthen communication between decision-makers and the public health system. It also will encourage and support Chinese scientists to participate in the international activities to reduce the health impacts of climate change.
  • Public awareness - There is limited public knowledge of the health impacts of climate change and the actions individuals should take to protect themselves, particularly during heat waves.

 

China Project Outcomes and Outputs
Outcome 1: An early warning system is established for impending heat waves to protect people at risk of cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases Outcome 2: Systemic and institutional capacity of health sector will be improved to respond to climate-sensitive health risks Outcome 3: Improve the adaptation capacities and emergency medical plans implemented for cases of cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases during heat waves.
1.1: Establishment of a multi-sectoral cooperation mechanism of health sector, meteorological bureau and environmental protection bureau. 2.1: Setting up a steering committee for actions during heat waves, and implementing resource sharing, information and skill exchange. 3.1: Emergency plan and support system established for high risk people in the project sites.
1.2: Collection and analysis of information on the relationship between meteorological and health data to establish a model to forecast health risks for vulnerable groups. 2.2: Community medical consulting personnel trained with respect to health risks during climate extremes, necessary health consultations and services, and self-protection measures. 3.2: Public awareness raised through a coordinated media campaign, including videocasts with health education lectures, and regular update of health education and consulting services in communities and schools.
1.3:  Design of a system for “early forecast, early prevention and early treatment”, providing graded forecasts of the severity of health risks in the project community.   3.3: Communication and education provided to Government and other decision makers on health risks associated with extreme heat, and effective behavioural responses. 
    3.4: Strengthened bilateral and multilateral cooperation through the participation and communication of decision-makers, government officers and researchers in international exchange.

 

Sustainability:

Not Yet Applicable

Replication:

Not Yet Applicable

Image(s):
Funding Source:
GEF-SCCF

Lessons Learned in Promoting Resilient Coastal Development in Tunisia

Summary:

Summary text

Adaptation Experience:
Results and Learning:

Participated in Project Inception Workshop and meetings with the Agence pour la Protection et l Amenagement du Littoral (APAL), and Africa Adaptation Programme (AAP) delegation * The project can benefit by clearer and more cohesive restructuring of project results, activities, indicators, and budgets. Critical path issues need to be addressed to ensure timely delivery of outputs. * The project is making efforts to accelerate project delivery through more distributed and flexible project execution. This entails building strategic and operation partnerships with a number of catalytic organizations. APAL plans to develop a thorough Project Stakeholder Involvement Plan and Partnership Strategy, which will outline in more detail the overall division of roles and responsibilities within the consortium. * APAL will analyse the issue concering linkages between AAP Tunisia project and the UNDP Territorial Approach to Climate Change (TACC) * Priority needs include (to be carried out by UNDP and ALAP): development of territorial climate adaptation and shoreline management plans in context of ICZM and possibly the TACC economic assessments and cost of climate change impacts on coastal zones soft techniques for coastal ecosystems restoration and sand dunes stabilization design of innovative financing mechanisms such as index-based weather insurance and adaptation-oriented Payment for Ecosystem Services

Sustainability:
  • There is a high risk of duplication and redundancies with existing initiatives in a number of areas. APAL plans to monitors this aspect and invests time in stakeholder consultations to build partnerships. This will help to identify overlaps and synergies with other projects.
Replication:
  • APAL plans to align the AAP project with their previous/on-going initiatives, particularly with an earlier UNDP-GEF project on conservation of coastal ecosystems (MedWetCoast). Findings from this project provides and extremely valuable guide for the AAP project. It is crucial that the MWC evaluation outcomes and recommendations are revisited by APAL.
Funding Source:
SDC