Disaster Risk Management
Ecuador faces a variety of climate change risks associated with changes in temperature and precipitation, as well as possible alterations to ocean currents. Climate change impacts are difficult to predict and model for the country due to its complex geographical and climatic situation associated with the existence of coastal, highland, and forest regions. Nonetheless, it is possible to identify a range of plausible climate change
scenarios at the national and regional levels, which can be used to help Ecuador prepare climate change
outcomes, increase the resilience of the water sector, and avoid maladaptation.
This project will promote climate-resilient development of the water sector. A single project cannot hope to address the entire spectrum of climate change risks for Ecuador’s water sector, so the project’s scope has been circumscribed to address priority capacity development and institutional changes.
Results and Learning:
Project Objective: To reduce vulnerability to climate change through effective water resource management. The project objective is to increase adaptive capacities to address climate change risks in water resource management. This will contribute to the broader goal of mainstreaming climate change risks into water management practices in Ecuador.
Key lessons learned:
- Involve key stakeholders early in the process to ensure that outcomes and outputs are appropriately aligned: Key stakeholders, both at the central level (MoE, Ministry of Agriculture, CNRH and SENPLADES) and at the provincial and local levels (Provincial Councils, Water Agencies, Municipal governments, NGOs), will be involved in the formulation of practical measures, taking into account the evolving needs of the institutions and the policy context for the water sector. More importantly, the guidelines will target the needs of the on-going planning efforts mentioned earlier to ensure that this integration will be established as a learning exercise. Thus, the ultimate goal of the guidelines is to effectively assist policy makers in setting up a framework for the integration of climate risk in the water sector. Outcomes 2 and 3 were also adjusted.
- Allow for modifications to the proposal: The original project proposal was modified in order to define more precisely the boundaries of the project and its proposed activities, and to allow for a clear distinction between baseline and project activities. Outcome 1 was originally: to strengthen policy environment and governance structure for effective water management through the integrating of adaptation to climate change in water governance structures. Following input from stakeholders, Outcome 1 was modified: Climate change risk on the water sector integrated into key relevant plans and programmes. This formulation allows for a continued mainstreaming effort in the water governance institutionality that will undoubtedly change during the anticipated political changes that the country will sustain during the formulation of a new constitution. Three instead of four outcomes have been identified in the revised proposal. Capacity building activities have been limited to one outcome while the other two outcomes focus on demonstration activities and improving water governance frameworks (i.e. legislation, national plans, etc) to integrate climate change risks. The outcomes now provide a description of their respective scope as well as more detailed description of the activities to be implemented.
- Merge disaster risk management and adaptation plans (when possible): At the local level, provinces and municipalities have development plans, and some of them also include risk management plans. However, these plans do not take into account risks from climate change. Currently, these plans are implemented based on public priorities and potential investment opportunities by public and private stakeholders. In some selected provinces, actions taken to improve water management and conservation are driven by negative water balance effects, which are partly the result of climate-induced factors. Although there is insufficient public awareness, some actions are undertaken already in important watersheds such as Paute, Jubones, Catamayo and others which are within the boundaries of the project. To guarantee the inclusion of climate change risks criteria into provincial and local development plans, the project will develop, with appropriate stakeholder input, an implementation strategy to apply the guidelines. The execution of this strategy will result in the integration of climate change concerns into key provincial and local development plans. This will help to facilitate a systematic adoption of climate change adaptation actions related to water management which, together with baseline development programmes, will contribute towards more efficient water use and reduced water supply vulnerability.
- Create a Management Support Group that strategically forms vital partnerships: The project will take advantage of the fact that key national institutions are part of the Management Support Group of this project. These institutions are key participants in the current elaboration of the National Development Plan, including the National Secretariat of Planning (SENPLADES), the MoE, CNRH, and CONCOPE. These partners will promote the consideration of climate change issues into the National Development Plan. This will ensure that climate risks in the water sector do not become an obstacle to the achievement of related development objectives. Concretely, the project will ensure that the National Development Plan incorporates climate change concerns regarding water resources by acknowledging (a) the threat posed by climate change and (b) creating an enabling environment (e.g. through legislative changes) that will promote adaptation.
- Identify complementarities and establish linkages with other programmes and action plans at regional and sub-regional levels: The Second National Communication (SCN), whose objective is to report to the UNFCCC on national efforts to address climate change, to formulate a national strategy, and to identify priorities for mitigation and adaptation, including potential projects for funding in these areas. The SNC will carry out vulnerability and adaptation assessments, and will identify priority measures and polices to build resilience in different sectors. Given the high complementarity between the SNC and this project, especially as both will be housed at MoE, close coordination among the project managers and the technical teams will be established from the beginning. The SNC is expected to generate impact studies that could feed into the design of adaptation strategies, and has already established a climate steering committee which will also form part of the project’s consultation strategy.
To ensure sustainability the project design relies on the following elements:
- A commitment to long-term planning at all levels, from strategies (such as promotion of inter-sectoral decision-making through inter-sectoral fora), to policies (such as projection of water supply for hydropower projects), to specific measures (such as pre-defined action plans for dealing with floods).
- Building of multi-sectoral teams, to allow climate-change adaptation to be integrated into planning in a wide range of sectors;
- Explicit consideration of costs and benefits, with endorsement of strategies, policies and measures only if they can be expected to provide overall net benefits to sustainable development;
- Commitment to continuous monitoring and regular evaluation of interventions over time; and inclusion of awareness-building and fund-raising amongst national and international agencies and donors as a core activity.
In the case of Ecuador, project sustainability turns on the initiative’s effectiveness influence over existing water governance structures and integrating adaptation into national policies. In the context of decentralization, it will also require the project to be rooted in regional and local institutions. Successful mainstreaming of climate change concerns into national and regional development planning will facilitate sustainability of the climate change agenda in the long-term. Activities in support of the adaptation agenda to climate change will be integrated into the mainstreaming of planning, as decision support mechanisms, and this is expected to facilitate its long-term sustainability. Public awareness and outreach activities will also help to build the institutional and political support needed to facilitate mainstreaming after project completion.
Climate change adaptation is at an early stage of development both in Ecuador and in the region. This project is therefore explicitly designed to pilot adaptation in Ecuador subject to the broadest possible range of climatic vulnerabilities to different kinds of water governance issues, but which have reasonable capacity in terms of infrastructure and human resources. By developing systemic capacity while demonstrating adaptation measures on the ground, the project will establish the conditions necessary for replication and scale up.
The project will seek to show practical results that can be immediately applied. The projections of water supply in the face of climate change for the Paute Hydropower project will enable its management to immediately design and adopt adaptation measures. Lessons learned can be immediately applied in other major hydropower projects, like Agoyan and Daule-Peripa, and in medium-sized and small hydropower projects like Abanico, Sibimbe, and Rio Calope. New projects, like the Coca-Codo Sinclair (approx. 859 Megawatts), Mazar and Sopladora, will benefit from the conclusions reached in this project.
The identification of vulnerable zones has taken into account the geographic location in relation to climatic conditions and risks to which it is exposed: Manabí is a coastal zone which is particularly susceptible to droughts and floods. The lessons learned from the pilot projects will be especially valuable for replication in other areas of the country. Further, the design and eventually lessons learnt from the project will contribute to further adaptation learning, and implementation of effective climate change adaptation in other vulnerable countries. The project will make use of the GEF Adaptation Learning Mechanism, to ensure that the lessons learnt from the project contribute to, and benefit from, experience in adapting to climate change across the whole of the GEF portfolio.
This project will take the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) process a step further by translating its priorities into reality and developing the capacity of the Royal Government of Bhutan and local communities to adapt to risks posed by climate change.
The objective of the project is to reduce climate change-induced Glacial Lake Outburst Flooding (GLOF) risks in the Punakha-Wangdi and Chamkhar Valleys in Bhutan. Through the project, the Government of Bhutan will integrate long-term climate change-induced risks into the existing disaster risk management framework.
The project will integrate climate risk projections into existing disaster risk management practices and implement capacity development measures. The project will demonstrate practical measures to reduce climate change-induced GLOF risks from Thorthormi glacier lake, and facilitate replication of lessons learned in other high-risk GLOF areas, both within and outside Bhutan.
The most significant climate change impact in Bhutan is the formation of supra-glacial lakes due to the accelerated retreat of glaciers with increasing temperatures. The risk of potential costly economic damages on key development sectors such as agriculture, hydropower, and forestry by Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) is mounting. Climate change is attributed as the primary reason that water levels in glacial lakes approach dangerous thresholds. This poses a new dimension to the existing range of threats to lives, livelihoods, and development.
Results and Learning:
Project Objective: To reduce climate change-induced risks of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) in the Punakha-Wangdi and Chamkhar Valleys.
Key lessons learned:
- Involve stakeholders from different government departments to create appropriate adaptation measures: Adaptation measures require involvement of stakeholders from different government departments as climate change adaptation cuts across different sectors of development. For example, an adjustment made within the project shifted the Early Warning System (EWS) component of the project to the Department of Energy (DoE) instead of the Department of Geology & Mines. EWS setup was reviewed and design aligned with ongoing EWS investments by the DoE.
- Ensure that there is ongoing cooperation and consistent support between the stakeholders and the government: Cooperation among the stakeholders and consistent support from the government is crucial in successful implementation of the project. This has been evidenced throughout the inception and implementation phases of this project and directly affects the realisation of Outcome 1: Improved national, regional, and local capacities. The outputs include the institutionalization of climate-resilient disaster risk management (DRM) legislation, policy frameworks and guidelines (1.1) and strengthened capacities for climate risk planning at the district administrative levels (1.2). Close collaboration ensures that the scope, objectives and outcomes are actionable and appropriate. Consistent support and communication also allows for adjustments to be made as necessary (as evidenced from the shifting of EWS responsibilities from the Department of Geology to the DoE).
- Involve district authorities and local communities at an early stage of project design: Involvement of district authorities and local communities and their acceptance of the project are crucial for successful implementation of project activities. For example, from a cost-benefit analysis the project found it difficult to decide whether to transport project goods and materials to the project site via yak/horse or helicopter. With input it was determined that although much slower and more time-intensive, yak/horse transportation was preferred as it is cheaper overall, provides economic benefits to local communities and engenders a level of responsiveness in the local community to the project. Additionally, several rounds of awareness and advocacy programs have been conducted in vulnerable communities and institutional arrangements for GLOF preparedness and response were improved through targeted advocacy and awareness actions. A community-based disaster risk reduction curriculum was formulated and tested through a Training of Trainers program in May 2009. District Disaster Management Committee members have been trained in disaster management planning processes and expected to train sub-district DM committees and prepare district DM plans. The design of a GLOF Early Warning System has been upgraded to include communities further downstream, mobilizing additional co-financing resources.
- Plan field work well in advance: Given the remoteness of the project area and the limited time window of opportunity for excavation works (4 months per annum), it became clear that field work needs to be planned well in advance. An adequate minimum of working months during the season needs to be maintained each year in order to keep the workforce interested and motivated (otherwise, the financial incentives will be insufficient). Delays in the commencement of excavation works has resulted in the reduction of overall working days at the project site, which has diminished the interest of some workers joining the team. As a result, some workers have dropped out from the work force
- Cast a wide net to find the desired expertise (and compensate the labour appropriately): For the project it was necessary to draw labour from a wide range, since the required work force strength was not available from immediate project area. A targeted announcement for workforce recruitment was made in the local media. Financial incentives were made more attractive, and additional insurance was provided. As a result, over 400 people came for recruitment along with mandatory medical certificates.
Although DGM has adequate engineering geology skills and carried out a number of geotechnical assesments and mapping, the approach of fielding a multi-disciplinary team proved to be very important for achiving the objectives of the engineering and safety plan at the Thorthormi lake and for the implementation of GLOF risk mitigation work. The 31 trained DM team members will be further training the teams in each block at the local government level to ensure that local DM plans are formulated to incorporate climate change risks.
Adaptation measures require involvement of stakeholders from different government departments (DOE was included as additional partner) as climate change adaptation cuts across different sectors of development / Cooperation among the stakeholders and consistent support from the government is crucial in successful implementation of the project / Involvement of district authorities and local communities and their acceptance of the project are crucial for successful implementation of project activities.
Improvement of Early Warning System to Reduce Impacts of Climate Change and Capacity Building to Integrate Climate Change into Development Plans
Implementing Agency:UNEP - United Nations Environment Programme
To build institutional capacity for monitoring and predicting climate change impacts and vulnerability and for improved planning for adaptation to climate change throughout the country. This will be done be increasing the capacity for early warnings, response systems and national planning. This proposed project seeks to implement Lesotho’s third and fourth priority as identified in the National Adaptation programme of Action (NAPA).
1. Climate change monitoring and prediction
2. Climate change risk communication systems
3. Climate change policy
5. Public Awareness and Education
6. Monitoring, Mid-Term and Final Evaluation
7. Project Management
1. Enhancement of national network and establishment of protocols for providing, coordinating and assessing climate change relevant data needed for climate monitoring, prediction and projections; Socio economic databases assessed, collated and coupled with climate change database for improved understanding of vulnerability; Development of system for climate change impact assessment for all vulnerable livelihood zones.
2. Appropriate and effective channels for communicating climate and early warning information to end users (especially rural communities) established; Communication network for transmission of data from stations to monitoring centres and early warning information from monitoring centres to end users (especially rural communities) strengthened; A functional communication network for early warning systems and climate change is developed and established.
3. Technical assessment and analysis of climate change data for policy use (bridging science and policy); National climate change adaptation policy frameworks developed focussing on integrating climate change issues into key national development policies.
4. Training program developed and implemented for: a. technical personnel in maintenance and operation of hydro-meteorological and communication networks; b. technical personnel for climate change modelling and prediction; c. disaster management groups and rural communities for responses to early warning systems on optimal use of available information
5. Targeted public awareness needs identified in support of other components of the project; Implementation of the public awareness campaign, building on awareness carried out during NAPA preparation with a special focus on rural communities Inclusion of climate change into the national education curriculum.
Project Contact Person: Geordie Colville Tel: +254-762-3257 Email: Geordie.Colville@unep.org
Project Status:Council Approved
Implementing Agency:United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:n/a
The project aims to work with a rural oasis community in southern Morocco. The village is faced with high levels of environmental degradation, which is exacerbated by increasing demand on resources due to population growth. These pressures will be significantly exacerbated by climate change impacts. Climate change is projected to increase temperatures and reduce rainfall throughout Morocco.
1.) Agroforestry and water-efficiency measures undertaken to reduce climate change risks, namely drought and desertification through the establishment of a system of revolving funds to sustainably improve access of improved irrigation technologies to the community, and to facilitate ongoing adaptation-related activities once initial loans are repaid. In addition, the development of intermediary water storage facilities, to reduce the need to store water in unlined canals that will face increasing evaporation pressures stemming from climate change, and also to reduce the need by farmers to water their crops at inefficient times of day (mid-day, etc). There will also be an identification of appropriate palm varieties that will require less irrigation water. Lastly, pilot plantation activities of species and varieties identified in output 3 will occur.
2.) The capacity of the community to understand, to take steps to organize and address climate change is strengthened through climate change information shared and community-level awareness raising. Training activities for the community and project team in agricultural practices to reduce climate change risks will also be provided, as will discussion and development of a local plan, by the community, ensuring efficient use of community land and water, in coordination with local political water management structures.
3.) Lessons learned from the project fuel local policies are replicated at the national level and disseminated globally through information-sharing between CBA projects funded in the oasis region, with the objective of sharing best practices and lessons learned relating to climate change adaptation, the incorporation of lessons learned and identified best practices into local development plans, the documentation of lessons learned and best practices to adapt to increasing aridity in agroecosystems Oasis (in the form of documents or multimedia products), and through the dissemination of lessons learned at the national and global level.
Mr. Pradeep Kurukulasuriya, Technical Advisor, BDP/EEG
Tel: +1 (212) 906 6843
Ms Lamiss Naciri
UNDP GEF Small Grants Programme- Morroco
Tel: 212 37 661435
Project Status:Planning Phase
AGIR Project: Supporting Adaptation of Productive Practices among Pastoral and Agropastoral Communities in the Rombou Rural Commune (Dakoro Department)
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:CBOs, Roumbou Municipality, Association Nigérienne pour la Modernisation de l’Elevage (ANPME), Equiterre (Swiss NGO)
The project aims to work with a community of sedentary agropastoralists, comprising plateau and valley ecosystems in Niger’s Sahel zone. The community numbers about 6,000 people, of whom 2,000 would be directly affected by the project. Baseline ecosystem pressures include declining availability of fuelwood, siltation of farmland and water points, and disappearance and degradation of traditional wells. Ongoing climate change impacts will add to these pressures, increasing annual average aridity through increases in average temperature and evapotranspiration.
The UNDP CBA project will build the capacity of the community to engage in livelihood practices that will maintain and strengthen ecosystem resilience in the face of climate change including variability.
Along with co-financing, traditional wells will be rehabilitated and the creation of grain and seed banks to promote better-adapted and climate-resilient seeds and to provide a buffer against food insecurity stemming from increasing climate variability will occur. Solely, the UNDP CBA project will protect water points climate-driven siltation, erosion and desertification by planting trees around water points. In addition, alternative NRM practices piloted in the Tarka valley to promote ecosystem resilience in the face of climate change through the piloting of cultivated forage, of dune fixation measures using hedgerows, and of degraded land restoration measures. The CBA project will also train the community members in the implementation and monitoring of climate-resilient natural resource management practices. Lastly, lessons learned from project implementation will be integrated into local-level planning.
- Mr. Pradeep Kurukulasuriya,
- Technical Advisor
- Tel: +1 (212) 906 6843
- Mr. Katiella Mai Moussa
- National Coordinator
- UNDP-GEF Small Grants Programme - Niger
- Tel:(227) 96963311
Project Status:Under Implementation
Primary Beneficiaries:Local residents in the Tarka Valley ecosystem
Implementing Agency:United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
This project will focus on the area encompassing seven villages of the Gagaemauga III district. The Gagaemauga III District is located on the northern most point of the island of Savaii comprises seven coastal villages with a population of 1,640 people. In all villages, the majority of residents are largely sustained by plantation work and fishing, though there are a few shops and some limited ecotourism development.
The objective of the UNDP CBA project is to reduce the vulnerability of communities and the ecosystems upon which they rely to climate change, including increases in climate variability – reducing the impacts of climate change-driven flooding and coastal erosion through improved natural resource management. Increases in flooding, and increases in coastal erosion are separate problems, but with interlinked impacts on communities, and with a multitude of baseline (non-climate) and additional (climate change-driven) drivers. Increases in coastal erosion are driven by increasing intensities of storms, and by declining resilience of buffering coral ecosystems. Increases in flooding largely affect inland access roads leading from the coast road, which pass over marshy lands and are prone to flooding. Inland flooding is driven by a number of baseline factors, including the development of roads without drains or culverts for water passage. However, climate change will increase the vulnerability of these areas to flood, as increasingly intense rainfall events deliver more rainfall in shorter amounts of time. Communities in the region are currently moving inland, away from coastal hazard zones. As they do so, they become more vulnerable to inland flooding, as they become increasingly reliant on inland access roads, which in turn lead to the arterial coast road.
Improving the resilience of ecosystems to the impacts of climate change is an important component of the overall adaptation response in the area, as intact coral and coastal vegetation will help to protect the coast road from erosion, thus protecting the access of community members to vital goods and services linked to the coast road. More directly, it will also buffer coastal settlements, plantations, and infrastructure against increasingly intense cyclones, storm surges, and coastal erosion. In addition, climate change increases risks to local water supplies. Storm surges can threaten natural spring water supplies through flooding and salinization, while the local dam will likely see increases in sedimentation from increasing intensities of rainfall, against a backdrop of declining overall rainfall – leading to increased erosion and sediment deposit into the dam
Mr. Pradeep Kurukulasuriya, Technical Advisor, BDP/EEG
Tel: +1 (212) 906 6843
Mr. Sala Tagaliima
UNDP GEF Small Grants Programme-Samoa
Tel: +685 23670/71 ext 21
Project Status:Under Implementation
Implementing Agency:IBRD - The World Bank
Climate resilience and disaster risk reduction strengthened in key sectors in Vanuatu by promoting a risk management approach to reduce vulnerabilities.
1. Mainstreaming CCA & DRR at National, Provincial, and Community Levels 2. Strengthening Capacity in Planning for CCA and DRR 3. Implementing Climate Resilience Measures in Targeted Sectors 4. Project management
1. % of annual budget spent on CCA and DRR activities; and Number of sector plans that include CCA and DRR 2. Quality and timely information available for decision making; and # of area maps with hazard risks completed and available to users 3. % of households in targeted areas using sustainable practices introduced by the project; number of watershed or protected area/reserve plans prepared using hazard maps; % increase in water storage capacity in project areas; and # of new tourism investments guided by climate risk concerns
Project Status:Council Approved
Sustainable Management of the Water Resources of the la Plata Basin with Respect to the Effects of Climate Variability and Change
Implementing Agency:OAS, Intergovernemtnal Coordinating Committee for the la Plata Basin
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:GEF Trust Fund, GEF IA/ExA, Government, Others
The la Plata River Basin, extending over some 3.1 million km2, is one of the largest river basins in the world. The Basin’s rivers drain approximately one-fifth of the South American continent. Water and nutrients from the central regions of South America discharge through the la Plata River to the Southwest Atlantic
Large Marine Ecosystem (LME).
A large wetland corridor links the Pantanal (in the headwaters of the Paraguay River) with the Delta del Parana, at its outlet to the la Plata River.
* Component 1) Strengthening basin-wide cooperation capacity for integrated
hydro-climate management, is comprised of three sub-components: Harmonizing the legal and institutional framework; Facilitating stakeholder participation, communications, and education and Monitoring and evaluation.
of the project.
* Component 2) Strategic Action Program formulation, is comprised of three sub-components:Promoting Integrated Basin Management; Implementing pilot demonstration projects and Preparing the Strategic Action Program.
* Component 3) Adaptation to climate change, is comprised of one foundational activity: creating an Integrated Hydrometeorological-climatic Forecasting System at the Basin level to generate meteorological, hydrological and climatic forecasts and scenarios.
The goal of this project is to support the initial implementation of the Framework Program, by formulating a Strategic Action Program (SAP)for the la Plata Basin, and creating the institutional and legal framework, and technical capacity for its implementation. The Framework Program integrates on-going projects and programs
executed under the la Plata Basin Treaty coordinated by the Inter-governmental Committee for the la Plata Basin (CIC,) and by bi-national and tri-national committees created under the la Plata Treaty. More particularly, the Program integrates on-going and under-preparation projects supported by the GEF for addressing specific environmental issues. Government investments, private investments, and associated financing are all taken into account within the execution of the Framework Program.
The project contributes to a higher objective set forth by the five signatory countries to the la Plata Basin Treaty--Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay--as coordination of actions and investment in the la Plata Basin for the sustainable management of its water resources. Consequently, baseline investment is at the essence of this Project.
Finally, the project initiates efforts on adaptation to the Climate Variability and Climate Change, with the ultimate goal of mitigating their negative impacts and capitalizing on the opportunities that they provide. Thus, while coordinating all water management related actions, it introduces adaptation to climate variability and change as a cross-cutting issue, mainstreaming it throughout all projects and actions.
Isabelle van der Beck
Implementing Agency:IBRD - The World Bank
To develop and demonstrate the systematic diagnosis of climate-related problems and the design and implementation of cost-effective adaptation measures in agriculture and natural resources management. In addition, the project would aim to integrate climate risk awareness and responsiveness into economic and operational planning.
The Philippines is widely known as one of the countries that is most exposed to natural hazards, including typhoons, floods, landslides, droughts, volcanoes, earthquakes and tsunamis.
1. Improve coordination of adaptation policy by DENR.
2. Implementing climate risk reduction measures in key productive sectors.
3. Strengthen proactive disaster management within the NDCC.
4. Enhance provision of scientific information for climate risk management.
5. Project management
1. Inter Agency Committee on Climate Change’s (IACC) work on adaptation strengthened;
Institutional arrangements for climate change adaptation in Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) strengthened.
2. Investments in natural resources, infrastructure and agriculture sectors are more resilient to climate change.
3. National Disaster Coordination Committee‘s (NDCC) capacity to carry out disaster risk reduction is enhanced; Climate change impacts are considered in NDCC's risk analyses for disaster risk reduction.
4. Capacity of National Mapping and Resource Information Authority (NAMRIA) and Philippines Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Authority (PAGASA) to provide scientific information to various end users strengthened; Capacity in other scientific institutes improved; and Feasibility of strengthening weather insurance assessed.
Project Contact Person
EAP GEF Coordinator
Project Status:Council Approved