Climate Change Adaptation and IWRM - An Initial Overview

Author(s):
Mike Muller
Year:
2007
Publisher:
Global Water Partnership
Pages:
12
Summary:

Funding Source:
Other

Water Management, Water Security and Climate Change Adaptation: Early Impacts and Essential Responses

Author(s):
Claudia Sadoff and Mike Muller
Year:
2009
Publisher:
Global Water Partnership
Pages:
92
Summary:
   

The technical background paper (3.95 MB)  argues that water resrouces management should be a focus for climate change adaptation and that IWRM is the most suitable approach to adaptive action.

Funding Source:
Other

UNDP/GEF supported CBA Community Based Adaptation Project Pilot Sites: Onamulunga School Garden Project

Summary:

The Community-Based Adaptation Programme (CBA) is a five-year United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) global initiative funded by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF). UNDP works with a number of partners including the United Nations Volunteers and the GEF Small Grants Programme (SGP). Initial CBA investments have been made in 20 communities in the northern parts of Namibia (i.e. Omusati, Oshana, Ohangwena, Oshikoto and Kavango Regions). Climate models suggest that these areas are particularly vulnerable and face significant climate change risks, both at present and in future. To facilitate uptake of CBA strategies the Onamulunga Combined School project is focused on integrating adaptation to climate change into school curriculum. The pilot programme at Onamulunga Combined School in the Oshikoto region involves training grade 9 and 10students in adaptation farming methods such as conservation tilling, water harvesting, and micro-drip irrigation and planting drought resistant crops. These methods are subsequently taken up by the students’ native communities. This project directly contributes towards Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 2 and 7 and, through a special focus on the inclusion of young women and girls, to MDG 3.The project also indirectly contributes to the realization of other MDGs.

Adaptation Experience:

There are various Community Based Adaptation projects in Namibia. The particular project discussed here is implemented by an NGO called Creative Entrepreneurs Solutions (CES) that applies CBA measures through self-help groups. At the Onamulunga Combined School in the Oshikoto region, grade 9 and 10 students receive practical lessons in how to implement improved farming methods for a future affected by climate change.

Results and Learning:

According to a recent field visit by an independent assessor, the Onamulunga Garden project has achieved many of the intended results. Various sites at the school have been prepared for crop agriculture using the latest conservation tilling methods for dry land crops and micro-drip irrigation for vegetables. The project coordinator is Agriculture and Life Science teacher, Johannes Nelongo, who has provided inspirational leadership for 87 grade 9 and 10 students to put the theory they learn in the classroom in practice in the field, growing maize, sunflowers, cow peas, spinach, carrots, onions and other vegetables.They apply conservation furrowing and ripping, water saving techniques, mulching, application of organic and chemical fertilising, crop rotation and alternative growing methods. As such, the project provides learners with practical adaptation techniques. “Practical exercises make it easier for learners to interpret theoretical information. It thus gives them wisdom and insight and teaches them how to apply these methods at home,” says Nelongo.[Refer to the attached document for further details.]

Sustainability:

The project has built adaptive capacity for almost ninety learners, with the intention that they take these skills forward and apply them in the decades to come. Already a multiplier effect is noticeable in the children and teachers’ home communities. The project focuses on establishing a strong foundation for the application of adaptation mechanisms in farming practices rather than creating dependency through aid. “Because the programme demonstrates tangible benefits for the communities involved, it is sustainable,” says Marie Johansson from CES. “It will continue even if donor support stops tomorrow. It is important to start with educating kids. Young people, especially girls, pick the skills up quickly. From there on it is easier to integrate the community. Later on, many kids will migrate to urban areas and unfortunately fall in the trap of unemployment. But with the skills they learn here, there is an alternative way to make a living off the two hectares or so near their homestead. In this way even small farmers can become commercial farmers.”

Replication:

The project has been so successful that it has grabbed the attention of other schools. Four nearby schools are interested and have been invited to participate. As such, Onamulunga can become a centre of learning for the community. This is compounded by the multiplier effect already mentioned, with children introducing the new methods to their parents and villagers coming to the school to see the improved cropping system with their own eyes. “As a school we need to involve communities and share the skills and knowledge that we have,” says Onamulunga principal Immanuel Namupolo. “Now the community helps us to look after the project when the school is closed. We also give parents our surplus maize, so they can sell it. In doing so, the project reaches out to parents. We give them a role to play, so that they are involved in the process of adaptation.”The experiment teaches children to adapt to a situation where fertile land and water are becoming increasingly scarce resources. But the initiative also has a wider effect within the surrounding communities, with children applying their newly acquired skills in the household farm setting. Enthused by the Onamulunga success story, parents and teachers have also started their own gardens. “The proceeds from the garden save people a lot of money. Sometimes you don’t even have to go to the market for a whole month,” one teacher remarks. 

Image(s):
Funding Source:
GEF-SPA

Onamulunga School Garden Project

  • Project details

  • Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:
    Onamulunga Combined School; Creative Entrepreneurs Solutions (CES). Other stakeholders include: the Ministry of Environment and Tourism, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Fisheries, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Namibia Agronomic Board, GEF through its Strategic Priority on Adaptation (SPA) programme, UNDP; Small Grants Programme and all its delivery partners.
    Summary:

    The Community-Based Adaptation Programme (CBA) is a five-year United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) global initiative funded by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF). UNDP works with a number of partners including the United Nations Volunteers and the GEF Small Grants Programme (SGP). Initial CBA investments have been made in 20 communities in the northern parts of Namibia (i.e. Omusati, Oshana, Ohangwena, Oshikoto and Kavango Regions). Climate models suggest that these areas are particularly vulnerable and face significant climate change risks, both at present and in future.

    Project Components:

    There are various Community Based Adaptation projects in Namibia. The particular project discussed here is implemented by an NGO called Creative Entrepreneurs Solutions (CES) that applies CBA measures through self-help groups. At the Onamulunga Combined School in the Oshikoto region, grade 9 and 10 students receive practical lessons in how to implement improved farming methods for a future affected by climate change. Through equipping the students with relevant agricultural adaptation skills, the pilot programme is designed to sow the seeds for uptake and wider spread of adaptation measures throughout the community.

    Expected Outputs:
    • Outcome 1: Enhanced adaptive capacity allows communities to reduce their vulnerability to adverse impacts of future climate hazards.
    • Outcome 2: National policies and programmes promote replication of best practices derived from CBA projects.
    • Outcome 3: Cooperation among member countries promotes innovation in adaptation to climate change including variability.
       
    Contacts:

    SGP-CBA: Contact Nickey //Gaseb
    E-mail: NickeyG@unops.org

    CES: Contact Marie Johansson
    E-mail: info@ces.org.na

    Onamulunga Combined School: Mr. Nelongo: +264 81 69 66700
    AAP-NAM: Contact Ernst Mbangula
    Email: embangula@met.na
     

    Project Status:
    Under Implementation
    Primary Beneficiaries:
    Major stakeholders are: the Onamulunga Combined School; Creative Entrepreneurs Solutions (CES). Primary beneficiaries are the grade 9 and 10 students, their families and the communities living within the pilot areas, as well as other schools in the wider area.
    Project Details
    Funding Source:
    GEF-SPA
    Financing Amount:
    GEF (SPA): US$960,000 GEF (SPA) through a UNDP/GEF CBA Project in Namibia: US$ 413,189 Total GEF Grant: $1,000,000, CES budget is US$ 312,000
    Cofinancing Total:
    US$5,795,806
    Total Amounts:
    US$6,795,806

Tuvalu Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change PACC Project

Author(s):
NA
Year:
June 2011
Volume:
Volume 1 Issue 2
Pages:
4
Summary:

Climate Change Policy Development Consultation

Funding Source:
GEF-SCCF

Addressing climate change risks to farming systems in Turkmenistan at national and community level

  • Project details

  • Summary:

    Climate change is projected to have significant impacts on water resources in an already arid Turkmenistan. Water availability and supply are likely to suffer from increasing shortages due to elevated temperatures, overall climate aridification and competition for water arising from regional trans-boundary water issues. Turkmenistan‘s inherent aridity and reliance on agriculture as a source of both income and food renders the country particularly vulnerable to these climate change impacts.

    Project Components:
    1. Policy and Institutional Capacity Strengthening
    2. Community-based adaptation initiatives
    3. Communal systems for water delivery

    Source: Project Proposal, 2011

    Expected Outputs:
    1. Institutional capacity strengthened to develop climate resilient water policies in agriculture
    2. Resilience to climate change enhanced in targeted communities through the introduction of community-based adaptation approaches
    3. Community-managed water delivery services introduced to benefit over 30,000 farmer and pastoralist communities in the three target agro-ecological zones.

    Source: Project Proposal, 2011

    Project Status:
    Project Funded (Approval date: 2011-06-22
    Project Details
    Funding Source:
    Adaptation Fund
    Cofinancing Total:
    US$ 2,929,500

Approaching community adaptation to climate change holistically by using multiple coping strategies

  • Project details

  • Implementing Agency:
    Creative Entrepreneurs Solutions (CES)
    Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:
    UNDP, the Small Grants Programme (SGP), UN Volunteers, Other partners include Green Life Trust, Ministry of Agriculture, Water, and Forestry, Agronomic Board, Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden).
    Summary:

    Background

    Project Components:

    This CBA project’s goal is the pilot implementation of six coping strategies to climate change vulnerability that can be duplicated on a large scale in other similar communities. It has been prepared by a small NGO, Creative Entrepreneurs Solutions (CES), through a participatory process involving different sectors of the communities.:

    1. Water security (flood and rain water harvesting for irrigation, livestock and fish farming); Food security (sustainable agricultural practices and land degradation combating) such as:
    2.  Irrigated vegetable production 9using harvested flood and rain water), and
    3. Improved dry land crop production through soil improving management strategies such as composting, bio char, crop rotation and conservation agriculture;
    4. Flood and drought resistant crops (improved drought resistant mahangu varieties, mushroom, rice and sweet stem sorghum) for human nutrition sources as well as fodder security for livestock/chicken/fish fodder to boos availability of protein nutrition and incomes;
    5. Energy efficient stoves and renewable energy in combination with agro forestry/general reforestation and improved natural resource management;
    6. Awareness building interventions on climate change, coping strategies, global warming and nutrition needs.
       

     

    Expected Outputs:

    The project seeks to achieve its goal through the following activities:

    • Building awareness of climate change, coping strategies and nutrition needs whilst supporting the social mobilization of community members into Self Help Groups
    • Ensuring water security with flood and rain water harvesting for agricultural irrigation, livestock and fish farming
    • Ensuring food security by using sustainable agricultural practices and methods that protect against land degradation such as irrigated vegetable production (supporting HIV/AIDS affected families) using harvested flood and rain water
    • Improved dry land crop production through the introduction of improved soil conservation methods such as composting (rehabilitation of degraded soil by using natural fertilizer), bio char, crop rotation and conservation agriculture such as CONTILL
    • Increased usage of improved drought and flood resistant crops such as pearl millet varieties (the national staple food referred to locally as ‘mahangu’), rice, mushroom and sweet stem sorghum for human nutrition and fodder security for livestock, chicken and fish to boost availability of protein nutrition and incomes
    • Energy efficient stoves and agroforestry in combination with general reforestation techniques

    From the above activities, the proposed project will contribute to the development of adaptive strategies in response to climate change. They will help sustain food security and income generation with no adverse impacts to the land or other natural resources.

    Contacts:

    CBA Project Management Unit:

    Charles Nyandiga, Email: charles.nyandiga@undp.org

    Anna Lisa Jose, Email: annalisa.jose@undpaffiliates.org, 220 East 42nd St, 21st Floor NY, NY 10017,Tel: 646-781-4402

    SGP National Coordinator: Nickey Gasseb, Email: nickeyg@unops.org, Tel: +264 61 248 345

    Project Status:
    Under implementation
    Project Details
    Funding Source:
    GEF-LDCF
    Cofinancing Total:
    n/a

Pilot project on water and climate change adaptation in the Chu Talas River

  • Project details

  • Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:
    UNDP, UNECE, OSCE, National Water Committees in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan: Water Resources Committee under the Ministry of Agriculture, Kyrgyzstan: Ministry of Agriculture, Water Resources and Processing Industries (MAWR), Kazakhstan: Water Resources Committee
    Summary:

    Climate change may threaten livelihoods, economic development, human health, water resources, and thus security. Water resources will be directly affected by climate change through changes in the hydrological cycle. Moreover such impacts on water resources will have a cascading effect on other sectors such as agriculture (decreased availability of water for irrigation, coupled with increased demand), energy (reduced hydropower potential and cooling water availability), recreation (water-linked tourism), fisheries and navigation.

    Project Components:

    This project will increase the adaptive capacity of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan and of the Chu-Talas Commission to ongoing and future climate change impacts, ensure coordination of adaptation actions in the Chu-Talas basin and thereby help to prevent possible negative effects on regional security.

    Expected Outputs:

    - Common scenarios and models agreed upon by the riparian countries assessing the expected climate change impacts on water resources; - Joint vulnerability assessment for the respective basin, including environmental, social and economic vulnerability and the security implications; - Proposal for the procedures to be employed by the Joint Commission to tackle uncertainty related to climate change and maintain needed level of cooperation and benefits sharing; - Proposal for coordinated measures to be taken in the specific basin enabling climate change adaptation, including cost-benefit assessment and environmental impact assessment.

    Contacts:

    Natalia Alexeeva UNDP. natalia.alexeeva@undp.org

    Sonja Koeppel UNECE, sonja.koeppel@unece.org

    Project Status:
    Under implementation
    Project Details
    Funding Source:
    Other
    Financing Amount:
    $250,000
    Cofinancing Total:
    Information not available
    Total Amounts:
    $250,000

Development of sustainable water supply and treatment systems for a coastal Fijian village

  • Project details

  • Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:
    National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA)
    Summary:

    This three year collaborative NZaid project is working with coastal Fijian villagers at Votua on the Coral Coast of Viti Levu to develop pragmatic water supply and waste treatment solutions to protect public health and reduce contamination of coastal waters.

    Contacts:

    NZAID Contact:
    Paul Eastwood
    Email: paul.eastwood@nzaid.govt.nz

    Project Status:
    Completed
    Project Details
    Funding Source:
    NZAid
    Cofinancing Total:
    no information available

Water supply projects under Grassroots programme in Tonga

  • Project details

  • Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:
    JICA, AusAID, NZAid
    Summary:

    A program of small-scale community development projects will continue to be implemented with funding support from AusAID, NZAID and the Japanese Grassroots Program. Over 30 projects were in process of implementation or preparation in late 2005. They mostly involve upgrading water supplies and supporting cooperative societies and women’s development groups engaged in basic service delivery and income-generating projects.

    Contacts:

    JICA Samoa:
    Takayuki Tomihara
    tomihara.takayuki@jica.go.jp

    Project Status:
    Under Implementation, 2005
    Primary Beneficiaries:
    Grassroots Communities
    Project Details
    Funding Source:
    AusAid
    JICA
    NZAid
    Cofinancing Total:
    no information available