The Pangani Basin is one of the most productive areas of Tanzania with nationally important agricultural outputs, (almost 90% of the surface flow in the Pangani river basin is used for irrigation) and hydropower generation. In addition, the basin has forest and biodiversity resources of global importance. Despite available water resources, Pangani Basin is water stressed having less than 1,200 cubic meters of water per person per year and already inadequate supplies threaten the basin’s natural resources, livelihoods,
Read the briefing note for details on specific adaptation activities, climate change impacts, vulnerability assessment and community consultations.
This project is one of the first field-based climate change adaptation projects in Eastern Africa with strong links to basin and national planning and policy, and as such will build national and regional capacity, provide lessons and serve as a national and regional demonstration site.
The UNDP/GEF SCCF project is part of the Pangani River Basin Management Programme (PRBMP), implemented by the Pangani Basin Water Office (PBWO) in partnership with IUCN, since 2002. Activities under PRBMP are expected to continue into 2010. Co-financers supporting the implementation of the PRBMP include UNDP/GEF, IUCN’s Water and Nature Initiative (WANI), European Commission (EC).
The Project Executing Agency is the Pangani Basin Water Board. The UNDP/GEF project duration is three years.
The objective of the project is to prepare water managers and users for changing climatic conditions (especially reduced flows) through the provision of technical data, planning, and improved allocation, capacity building (conflict management) and awareness-raising.
Results and Learning:
Key lessons learned:
- Institute measures that speed up production of technical information: Although implementation rate has improved to some extent, the project is still experiencing slow movement for Outcomes 2 and 4. IUCN needs to institute measures that clearly demonstrate speeding up the production of the technical information from the two outcomes.
- Decouple outcomes, if possible, to ensure timely ensure the timely delivery of project outcomes in the most efficient way by the end of the project duration: Several changes at the project input/activity levels are recommended and approved by the PSC to exercise the adaptive management during the project implementation to ensure the timely delivery of the project outcomes in the most resource efficient way by the end of the project duration. The climate change component (Outcome 3) has been decoupled from the flow assessment (Outcome 1) so that the IFM can be completed without further delay without compromising the quality of the climate data to be yielded from the climate change component. Outcomes 2 and 4 depended to some extent on technical information generated under Outcome 1. Consequently the deliberate slow downs in Outcome 1 introduced some delays to these other outcomes.
- Be aware of logistical constraints (e.g. staffing capacity, deficiencies in methodologies of climate change modeling): In the community participation component (Outcome 2) the roadmap for establishment of the catchment forums has been revised to improve implementation and take into consideration the staffing capacity within the PBWO and SNV. This includes establishment of a core team to implement and monitor the process. The core team and experts are training facilitation teams to build the capacity ion IWRM in communities and to enable the formation of catchment forums. In terms of Outcome 1, experts' review of the original climate change modeling found deficiencies in the methodology. This resulted in delay in conducting the final workshop for the flow assessment to conclude the Flow Assessment component. PSC made recommendation on how to proceed with the climate change modeling and avoid further delay in concluding the flow assessment component, which allowed the move towards finalizing component 1.
- Identify synergies with similar projects and ensure there is coordination between them: The project and PMU faced challenges to ensure synergies and coordination among a number of projects under the Pangani River Basin Management Programme. It also faced challenges to ensure the timely delivery of outputs that heavily require communities' involvement and participation. The inclusion of new partners/projects in the existing Pangani River Basin Management Programme indeed posed challenges but brought opportunities and flexibilities at the same time which cannot be realized by a project-based approach. The PSC and PMU focused on the opportunities that the programmatic approach brought to ensure the overall project/programme objective, using the adaptive management. For example, budget reallocation from the community-based adaptation pilot activities to the climate study was necessary to ensure that the climate data generate by the project is scientifically reliable. The reallocation was approved by the PSC. Later, PMU, together with IUCN managed to source funding from another project under the same Programme to conduct the community-based activities without significant compromise.
- Allocate time to develop meaningful partnerships: The time needed to engage communities fully in the IWRM planning processes is gained partly by adding a few new partners/projects under the same Programme which resulted in the extension of the expected funded period of the Programme. Management and implementation of the Programme supported by multiple projects/donors will take significant extra efforts, but the project witnessed during this reporting period that it also offered significant flexibility.
Further input is needed.
Further input is needed.
Mainstreaming Climate Change in Integrated Water Resources Management in Pangani River Basin - Tanzania
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:IUCN WANI, Ministry of Water, Pangani Basin Water Board, Pangani Basin Water Office and IUCN-EARO
This project will initiate Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) frameworks in the Pangani River Basin of Northern Tanzania. These frameworks will address climate change and pilot adaptation measures. It is one of the first field-based climate change preparation projects in Eastern Africa with strong links to basin and national planning and policy, and as such will build national and regional capacity, provide lessons and serve as a national and regional demonstration site.
1. Increased understanding of environmental, economic and social implications of different river flow scenarios under expected climatic conditions and increased capacity to collect and analyze such flow assessment information
- Capacity building to Tanzanian experts: Five Tanzanians now able to manipulate complicated Decision Support System used to model the environmental, economic and livelihood implications of different water allocation regimes
- Baseline information on hydrology, river health, estuary health and social economics of Pangani Basin generated
- Six additional technical reports produced on various aspects of the Pangani system, including: hydroelectric power modeling, fisheries, fish and invertebrate life histories, vegetation, hydraulic modeling, climate change modeling and macro-economics
2. Water Users empowered to participate in IWRM and climate change adaptation processes through dialogue and decentralized water governance
- Road map to develop the Kikuletwa Catchment Forum (KCF) produced
- Four inventory reports produced as an input to the forum design process: Water Availability and Use; Organizational Landscape; An Overview of Key Policy and Legal Environments; Comparative Experiences from Around the World
- Composition and ToRs of KCF design group established
- Awareness raised of WUAs and local government on the KCF process
3. Water sector’s vulnerability to climate change understood and pilot actions generate lessons in adaptation
- Climate change modelling in Pangani Basin undertaken
- Draft training requirements developed for community participation
- Modeling of expected environmental, economic and social impacts of 10 different development (water allocation) scenarios completed
- Awareness created within the basin, within the Ministry, and amongst global practitioners on the findings of the Pangani process
4. Basin Water Office coordinates other sectors and stakeholders in the development of an IWRM Plan (This is programme outcome receives no GEF funding and is not part of the original UNDP/GEF documentation.)
- Overview of IWRM planning process developed
- Draft training Module for IWRM produced
5. Project effectively & efficiently implemented to the satisfaction of all stakeholders
- Project Implementation Manual developed
- All human resources except the 2nd Community Development Officer, in place
- Multi-year workplan and budget; 2007; 2008 workplans
Outputs: Management and allocation of water in Pangani Basin includes climate change preparation and adaptation and environmental considerations in a sound Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) framework
Output 1: Increased understanding of environmental, economic and social implications of different river flow scenarios under expected climatic conditions and increased capacity to collect and analyze such flow assessment information
Output 2: Community participation in climate change adaptation and IWRM strengthened & future climatic vulnerability and risk minimized through dialogue and adaptation
Output 3: Coordination between water and climate change sectors strengthened and lessons learned from project activities scaled up to inform other communities, basins and countries
Output 4: Project implemented effectively & efficiently to the satisfaction of all partners
Project Status:Under Implementation
Primary Beneficiaries:Approximately 1 million people and communities in the affected areas: Pangani Basin Water Board, Pangani Basin Water Office, Distrcits, Wards, NGOs, communities