Enhancing adaptive capacity of communities to climate change-related floods in the North Coast and Islands Region of Papua New Guinea
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:UNDP, Office of Climate Change and Development
The proposed programme is planned to be implemented in two regions within Papua New Guinea. The North Coast area comprises 6 provinces with a population of around 1.8 million people. The Islands Region comprises 5 provinces with a population of around 750,000 inhabitants. Coastal flooding is the most important climate change related hazard in this region not only threatening the people in the coastal communities but also important economic centers, as most provincial capitals and economic centers are situated along the coast, particular provincial capitals.
Component 1: Adaptation to coastal flooding-related risks and hazards for North Coast and Islands Region communities
The combination of the outputs under this component will enhance the targeted coastal communities’ capacity to adapt to the risks and hazards posed by climate-related coastal flooding. This will be achieved by increasing local capacity for adaptation by implementing a comprehensive coastal warning system, which, in combination with the establishment of disaster preparedness and response plan will reduce the targeted communities’ exposure to coastal flooding events.
Component 2: Adaptation to inland flooding-related risks and hazards for river communities in Morobe, East Sepik and West Sepik
Analog to the combination of outputs under the first component, the increased climate resilience of the targeted inland communities will be achieved by implementing a comprehensive early warning system that supports an established disaster preparedness and response framework while the impact of occurring floods will be further reduced by riverbank protection measures.
Component 3: Institutional strengthening to support climate- and disaster-resilient policy frameworks
The activities under this outcome focus on the development of the relevant institutions’ capacity to integrate aspects of climate change-related risks and respective adaptation strategies into policy making. A two-pronged approach is pursued under the proposed programme:
- (i) Integration of climate change risk and resilience into development policies that encompass legal and planning frameworks.
- (ii) Further capacity building through the systematic training of policy makers at the national, provincial and district level, which goes hand-in-hand with the above development and implementation of climate-resilient policies.
Component 4: Awareness raising and knowledge management
Under this component, a systematic and multi-facetted awareness raising strategy is proposed, to ensure the long-term sustainability and broad outreach of the programme outcomes, as well as the development of local capacity to replicate the measures and policies put in place under the programme.
As detailed in the Adaptation Fund Proposal - PNG - June 2011.
- Output 1.1. Risk and vulnerability assessments conducted and updated at national level
- Output 1.2 Targeted population groups covered by adequate risk reduction systems
- Output 1.3 Targeted population groups participating in adaptation and risk reduction awareness activities
- Output 2.2 Vulnerable physical, natural and social assets strengthened in response to climate change impacts, including variability
UNDP Regional Technical Advisor
- Mr. Jose Padilla
- Email: jose.padilla @undp.org
Project Status:SOF Pipeline Entry (as of 2 February 2012)
Primary Beneficiaries:Communities in the North Coast and Islands Region of Papua New Guinea
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:UNDP, Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, Government of Mauritius
As a Small Island Developing State, the Republic of Mauritius is particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, especially in its coastal zones, where a convergence of accelerating sea level rise and increasing frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones results in considerable economic loss, humanitarian stresses, and environmental degradation.
Adaptation requires in situ changes in behaviour and site management, and appropriate technical interventions, as well as early warning systems to enable communities to move away from areas where the risk of storm surge and flooding is imminent. As coral reefs lose the race with sea level rise, the critical ecosystem function of wave attenuation must be replaced in some manner. Equally important is the need for a monitoring system that tracks the correlation between key ecosystem functions and weather events to continue to inform and fine-tune the design of appropriate interventions.
The programme will implement appropriate coastal protection measures and deliver improvements in the resilience of communities in three coastal zones of the island of Mauritius: Mon Choisy, Riviere des Galets and QuatreSoeurs. The overall approach is to work from the level of technical solutions at specific coastal sites to the policy and regulatory level, such that future replication of coastal adaptation measures will be catalysed, supported by new policies, guidelines, and economic incentives. Coastal communities will be increasingly climate resilient and able to protect livelihoods that are tied directly to the integrity of the coastal zone on the island of Mauritius.
Objective: Increase climate resilience of communities and livelihoods in coastal areas in Mauritius (all islands)
- Provide direct benefits to up to 3,150 people whose jobs, houses, and families are currently threatened by coastal erosion, storm surges, and tidal flooding.
Outcome 1: Current climate change risks at three coastal sites resolved through the design and application of coastal protection measures, using proven technologies (addressing beach erosion and flood risk from storm surges)
- By 2014, current climate change risks at three coastal sites (Mon Choisy, Riviere des Galets, QuatreSoeurs) resolved through design and application of coastal protection measures, using proven technologies (addressing beach erosion and flood risk from storm surges).
- Coastal degradation and vulnerabilities at each of the three sites arrested, meaning: no further erosion at Mon Choisy (beach accretion of 2 metres over 3 years); no surge flooding and no further shore erosion at Riviere des Galets; and, no flooding of coastal public buildings at QuatreSoeurs.
- The target for numbers of beneficiaries is as follows: Mon Choisy: 1,500-2000 people; Riviere des Galets: 100-150 –people; QuatreSoeurs: 1000 people.
Outcome 2: Early warning on incoming storm communicated to coastal communities, indicating the time of incidence and height of storm surges, through the design and activation of an early warning system
- By 2012, more than 3,400 people in current surge zones are able to safely evacuate prior to future storm surge events (there are no people left in the surge zone when the surge hits).
Outcome 3: Increase capacity of public agencies, private sector entities, NGOs and CBOs, and individuals to develop infrastructure and conduct livelihoods in the coastal zone with minimal risk of loss due to future climate change effects.
- By 2015, increased capacity of public agencies, private sector entities, and individuals to develop infrastructure and conduct livelihoods in the coastal zone of ROM with minimal risk of loss due to future climate change effects.
Outcome 4: Clear and practical alignment of Mauritanian policy strategies, plans and regulations with the most appropriate best practices for adaptation in the coastal zone, taking into account the expected risks to coastal processes and infrastructure in ROM over the next 50 years.
- By 2015, clear and practical alignment of Mauritian policy, strategies, plans, and regulations with the most appropriate best practices for adaptation in the coastal zone, taking into account the expected risks to coastal processes and infrastructure in ROM over the next 20 years.
Outcome 5: Effective capturing and dissemination of lessons from the applied activities in the programme
- By 2015, effective capturing and dissemination of lessons from the applied activities in the programme.
UNDP Regional Technical Advisor
- Jessica Troni
- Tel.: + 27 12 354 8056
- Email: email@example.com
Project Status:Start of the project: February 2012
Primary Beneficiaries:Mauritian communities in coastal zones with tourism-based livelihoods, specifically in three coastal zones of the island of Mauritius: Mon Choisy, Riviere des Galets and Quatre Soeurs
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:UNDP, Ministry for the Coordination of the Environment (MICOA)
The coastal zone of Mozambique is likely to experience significant impacts as a result of climate change during the course of this century. Mean sea levels will rise, wave patterns will alter, and the frequency and intensity of storms will change. More than 60% of the population of Mozambique lives in coastal areas, placing significant pressure on coastal resources and natural capital.
Objective: To develop the capacity of communities living in the coastal zone to manage climate change risks.
- Outcome 1: Climate change risks to coastal zones integrated into key decision-making process and managed at community level as well as sub-national and national government level.
- Outcome 2: Adaptive capacity of coastal communities improved and coastal zone resilience to climate change enhanced.
- 1. Coastal climate change risks integrated into key decision making processes at the local, subnational and national levels.
- 2. Adaptive capacity of coastal communities improved and coastal zone resilience to climate change enhanced.
- 3.Best practices documented and disseminated
Objective: At the end of the project 50% of men and women have declared ownership of adaptation processes (disaggregated by gender).
- Capacity Assessment score: 3.83/5
- At the end of the project 10 local government institutions have been trained in CC adaptation and SLR and coastal erosion risk management and; at least one decision-maker from the key institutions made use of improved climate and vulnerability information in their coastal adaptation policies.
- At the end of the project 50% of men and women have declared ownership of adaptation processes (disaggregated by gender).
- By the end of the project 50% of households increase their income by 50%.
- 50% of households have improved flood and drought management.
Primary Beneficiaries:Communities in seven pilot sites in three coastal Provinces in Mozambique, Local Government and national policy-makers.
Building Community Resillience in the Water Sector (IWRM) through Capacity Building, Policy Research and Action, Awareness Creation and EducationSubmitted by wrcclimate on Mon, 2011-09-05 20:55
The project sought to coordinate efforts to conserve and store water, reducing the effects of flooding through flood water retention, strengthening existing adaptation strategies (e.g. dry season farming), and providing mechanisms for timely climate forecast and information for communities in times of expected floods and drought in over ten Districts. Water storage facilities of different types depending on uses such as flood storm reduction, livestock watering, dry season gardening, groundwater recharge and domestic uses, were provided in over twenty communities across the three northern regions. These were preceded by customised awareness creation and tailor made capacity building and training activities. Major parners were Alternative Initiative for Development (AID), Centre for Human and Environmental Security (CHES), and University for Development Studies.
Results and Learning:
The project activities have shown contributions to building and strengthening the resilience of socioeconomically weakened communities with benefits trickling down to households especially those that are poor, having very limited resources with less mobility. Decision making for project activities had no gender imbalances as both gender contributed equally to approaches, the selection and siting of facilities as well as the overall management of connected small projects including expected benefit sharing. Water harvesting facilities were expected to not only serve food crop production purposes and gardening but also for livestock watering, and building and construction of houses, as well as for flood control in some cases.
The factors that underline the replicability of the activities are already practical recipes for sustaining the project. Local communities are determined in their own little ways to emulate what have been achieved in other communities. However, these efforts would require some high level adoption and intervention to avoid lags in adaptation and to also ensure quality, the order of the day. Most materials developed under the project are already being used nationally especially those on flooding which are providing necessary resources for the National Disaster Management Organisation (NADMO) hence some project activities are already enjoying an up-scaling and which must be sustained. Danida provided further support to the outcomes of this pilot so as to enhance sustainability. This takes the form of a practical climate change adaptation learning centre in Bolgatanga at the White Volta basin office to ensure sustained awareness, education and technical support through visitations made to the centre. However, this pilot phase should have been scaled up to real project status and then later years to programmes by the District Assemblies but just when the Assemblies started imbibing the concept of climate mainstreaming, the pilot phase was already concluding. A community investment support fund would in no doubt be an asset to continue with this project until such time that communities learn the appropriate way in harnessing water resources for their own water usage in the face of climate change and variability.
The most achieved and conspicuous impact of the approaches for implementing the project was to ensure easy replicability and knowledge sharing. This includes technical and non-technical assistance from the WRC through interaction of various communities’ leadership and their offer to help neighbours. What this project has therefore nurtured as an innovation and thinking outside the box is to promote intercultural exchange of experiences with respect to the project activities involving the deliberate movement of people into new environments to assist in providing adaptation support. Awareness creation materials and information brochures are tangible resources that are being used by poor and vulnerable communities to tell their own stories and specifically what they are looking forward to doing. Such materials have enlightened several actors interested in adaptation. There were no big or small actors as equal playing field was maintained for all to do what was expected of them and in spite of being a pilot project with limited financial resources a lot more was achieved than commensurate with the level of funding. The potential to replicate therefore is very straightforward, readily available human capacity and requiring very little financial investment to undertake. For the good of sustainability most of the activities are now seen as cross-cultural in the context of adaptation to climate change rather than as livelihoods support only.
The Government of Mozambique recognizes that the country is vulnerable to catastrophes and that the hazards resulting from climate change are exacerbating the persistence of absolute poverty in Mozambique. Of all of the natural hazards affecting the country, drought is the most common and the most devastating. In light of this challenge, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and its partners are implementing the Coping with Drought and Climate Change (CwDCC) project in Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. The projects are scheduled to run for five years with the goal of enhancing the capacity of agricultural systems in dryland areas to adapt to climate variability and change. For Mozambique, the implementation of this project will enhance food security and the capacity to adapt to climate change in agricultural and pastoral systems. More specifically, the project will reduce drought vulnerability in farming and pastoral communities by guaranteeing water supply and through training the local communities to grow drought-resistant crops, like sweet potato, cassava or sorghum. The project will also help improve the communication lines to make weather forecast and climate information available to communities. Key lessons learned from the project to date indicate that it is valuable to design a pragmatic and achievable work plan, and be aware of logistical constraints. Cooperation with similar initiatives is another important factor and critical component of ensuring project success.
Results and Learning:
Key lessons learned:
- Design a pragmatic and achievable work plan (preferably during inception stage): Projects need to remain focused and be cognizant of their logistical and practical parameters. An achievable project work plan should be decided early in the inception phase to ensure timely and effective implementation. Stakeholders at the project inception workshop, held on the 23 and 24 February 2009, agreed that the project needed to be narrowed down, and the number of activities prioritised and reduced. The project currently contains 9 outputs and 38 separate activities and an achievable project work plan is being finalised.
- Be aware of logistical constraints (e.g. staffing capacity) and respond accordingly: The UNDP CO has recruited an administrative assistant to ensure that the programme manager can concentrate into the implementation of activities. An international consultant has also been hired to assist the programme manager in developing managerial tools, prioritizing the activities in the project document and producing a baseline study to inform activities' implementation and allow for M&E in the future. This extra support is invaluable in ensuring that the activities are implemented according to schedule.
- Consider external factors when designing project timeframes: In October 2009 there were national elections in Mozambique that influenced some Government paralysis and difficulties in implementing project activities. Being cognizant of these external factors that may influence project outcomes, allows project staff to plan and operate accordingly.
- Coordinate efforts and cooperate with similar initiatives: It is imperative to coordinate efforts and cooperate with other initiatives involved in climate change in order to increase benefits and feedback for on-going activities. It was also recommended for the programme manager to align the activities plans with the Guijá District Development Plan (covering 2010 to 2012) to tap potential for synergies and to re-engage partners of the project (line Ministries, and local NGOs) already present in the field.
The proposed project is expected to be sustainable based on a high level of government, institutional and local level community commitment, and through the involvement of local NGOs. In this regard, formal commitment letters from the implementing agencies (government institutions) guarantees project continuity beyond the end of the project. Local community commitment will be ensured by cultivating community ownership through the implementation of community-based activities, which is an important part of the project. Finally, the involvement of local NGOs as partners in the implementation phase is contributing to the sustainability of the project and has sought to establish complementary and meaningful partnerships.
The medium and long term vision is to be able to replicate the succesful actions in other drought prone areas. Successful approaches in Guijá, a drought prone district, should have generated interest to replicate in other parts with similar problems. Replication will entail packaging information on lessons of this project for other drought prone areas. Among other districts, suggested districts by the stakeholders in workshop group discussions include, Chibuto, Chigubo, Mabalane, Chicualacuala, Massingir and Massangena in Gaza province and Funhalouro, Mabote and Panda in Inhambane province. Other districts are located in other drought prone areas such as southern Tete province, Northern and southern Manica province, southern Sofala province and parts of Nampula and Cabo Delgado province. Ideally, the experience gained in Guijá will be used by the implementing agencies to draw better strategies in those districts.
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security
Potential links between climate change impacts and violent conflict have received wide public attention. International resolutions such as the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, the European Security Strategy, and the UN High Level Panel on Threats, Challenges, and Change address these potential links between climate change and violent conflict. However, the alleged causal relationship between water shortages and violent conflict is as a general rule based on single case studies and have not been confirmed by large comparative studies.
Climate change poses several threats to human security. Hydro-climatic hazards such as droughts and floods have the potential to trigger or exacerbate social tensions, intra- and inter-state conflict. The EU-funded project CLICO will examine the relationships between hydro-climatic hazards, human security and conflict. The project will also develop recommendations for the best types of policies and institutions to avoid or better prepare for water conflicts related to climate change.
CLICO pursues the following objectives:
* To understand and model the relationships between hydro-climatic hazards, climate change vulnerability, human security and conflict, on the basis of theoretically-informed, comparative empirical research.
* To map international and national policies for security and adaptation in water resources and hazard management, and develop a policy model for security against hydro-climatic hazards (“hydro-security”) in the MMES region, applicable to the UN, EU and national states.
Project Status:Under implementation
The following case study is featured in the Meister Consultants Group study: *Floating Houses and Mosquito Nets: Emerging Climate Change Adaptation Strategies Around the World*.
Bangladesh is one of the countries that will be most affected by climate change. Two thirds of the country is located in low lying coastal wetlands less than five meters above sea level, so rising sea levels pose an especially serious threat. In the past, Bangladesh has frequently been hit by natural disasters, and climate change threatens to make such catastrophes even more common. Despite its financial constraints, the country is trying to prepare for these enormous threats as much as possible in order to minimize the number of potential victims and economic impacts. In this regard, Bangladesh’s case offers some best practices. For instance, in the event of an imminent flood the population is alerted through an early warning system that uses volunteers to alert people via megaphones as well as over the radio. Given the massive threats and its limited financial means, Bangladesh depends on international support for its measures to adapt to climate change.
_Source: Dr. Hans-Peter Meister, I. K., Martina Richwein, Wilson Rickerson, Chad Laurent. Additional contributors: Jeff Snell, Elisa Burchert, Florian Lux. (2009). *Floating Houses and Mosquito Nets: Emerging Climate Change Adaptation Strategies Around the World.* Boston: Meister Consultants Group. p. 21._
For more detailed information and references refer to: [Floating Houses - Full Report](http://files.mc-group.com/clst/Study%20Climate%20Change%20Adaption.pdf).
[Meister Consultants Group](http://www.mc-group.com/)
The Grameen Bank has become famous for its microcredit program. In 2006, the founder, Muhammad Yunus, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his pioneering work in the field of microfinance. These small loans are paid back on a weekly basis. The microcredit system builds on a system of shared responsibility: Families and communities support each other, thereby realizing a payback rate of close to 100 percent.
The Grameen Bank plays an important role for the adaptation to the impacts of climate change.
Results and Learning:
Information not available yet.
Information not available yet.
Information not available yet.
Focussing on the Baltic Sea Region (BSR), the project "Developing Policies & Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in the Baltic Sea Region" (ASTRA) assesses regional impacts of the ongoing global change in climate. Its aim is to develop adequate climate change adaptation strategies and policies, together with relevant stakeholders, such as planners and decision makers.
Climate change has potential long-term effects on the living environment.
The main objective is to assess regional impacts of the ongoing global change in climate and to develop strategies and policies for climate change adaptation.
* The project will address threats arising from climate change in the BSR, such as extreme temperatures, droughts, forest fires, storm surges, winter storms and floods.
In order to elaborate adaptation and mitigation strategies it is inevitable to involve regional and local spatial planners and stakeholders. Entry points and integration to existing planning processes and methods will be identified. Climate change impacts and vulnerability of regions are studied in several regional and local case studies.
Geological Survey of Finland
Betonimiehenkuja 4, 02151 Espoo
Philipp Schmidt-Thomé (Project coordinator)
Michael Staudt (Project manager)
Project Status:Completed (December 2007).
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:UNDP and the Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Directorate of Environmental Affairs (MET/DEA)
The 2009 Human Development Index report places Namibia’s rank at 128. Namibia has signed and ratified the UNFCCC. Namibia’s arid conditions, extreme weather patterns, socio-economic and political history, makes it more vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Other climate change risks include flooding, ecosystems and changes in seasons. The government of Namibia is committed to adapting to these risks through the reinforcement of institutional capacities and incorporating them into national, sub-national strategies, as well as community based approaches
Namibia has the institutional, individual and systematic capacity to address climate change risks and opportunities through a national approach to adaptation.
Output 1: Dynamic, long-term planning mechanisms to cope with the inherent uncertainties of climate change introduced, with a focus on managing flood risk.
- Critical information for improved and climate resilient decision-making generated and applied by National stakeholders.
- Technical capacities for Climate Change (CC) and (Climate Change Adaptation) CCA adaptive planning and management increased, with specific actions on contingency planning for flood and drought events.
- Climate Change Adaptation related drought and flood risks assessed and contingency measures in place.
Output 2: Namibian leadership and institutional frameworks to manage Climate Change risks and opportunities strengthened, including a decentralized approach.
- Strengthened, and if necessary reformed, national and regional multi-stakeholder Climate Change coordination platform.
- Strengthened leadership and technical capacities of national government and service providers (e.g. CBNRM - Community-Based Natural Resource Management support organizations’, conservancies, CBOs – Community Based Organizations) at national, regional and local level to assist communities in addressing climate change risks and opportunities.
- Youth action programme implemented that enhances overall community outreach on adaptation action – on a pilot basis.
Output 3: Climate Change Adaptation proof national and sectoral policies; design, test and implement priority Climate Change Adaptation measures, (flooding and settlement/ sanitation and health) and promote community-based adaptation action.
- National Climate Change Adaptation framework for priority adaptation action at the national, regional and local level in place.
- Mechanisms and approaches for nation-wide community planning and outreach for adaptation in place, including through regionalization of Climate Change Adaptation Toolkits (developed and tested in Omusati region)
- Capacity to effectively address selected sector issues developed (on a pilot basis - priorities floods and settlements & sanitation and health).
Output 4: Financing options to meet national adaptation costs expanded at the local and national level, building on ongoing I & FF (Investment and Financial Flows)work.
- Strengthened financial development framework on Climate Change risks and opportunities established in Namibia.
- Sustainable CBA (Community Based Adaptation) financing in place for meaningful community actions throughout Namibia.
Output 5: Knowledge on adjusting national development processes to fully incorporate climate change risks and opportunities generated and shared across all levels.
- Key stakeholders document, disseminate, and influence policy and programmatic responses for adaptation in priority sectors, nation-wide and internationally.
Ms. Jessica Troni
Regional Technical Advisor
Climate Change Adaptation
Project Status:Under implementation
Climate Frontline - African Communities Adapting to Survive is a joint initiative between five international NGOs to document how climate change is affecting lives throughout Africa and how communities are adapting to it.