Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:DIM, UNDP, State Academy of Science, State Commission of Science and Technology
The goal of this project is the reduction of the annual growth rate of GHG emissions from fossil fuel using activities through the removal of major barriers to the development and widespread implementation of small-scale wind energy systems (SWES) to replace part of the current fossil fuel use in the DPRK. This is carried out by assisting the nascent wind energy sector on the road to full-scale commercialization and improving the domestic market (particularly the rural areas), as well as the potentially viable foreign market, for locally manufactured SWES units.
- Wind Energy Resource Assessment
- Wind Energy Technology Information and Awareness Enhancement
- Development of Domestic and Overseas Market for Locally-made SWES
- SWES Design Improvement
- SWES Manufacturing Improvement
- SWES Technology Demonstration
- Energy Planning and Policy Formulation
- Assessed wind characteristics and energy potentials in the country and improved local capacity to carry out wind energy assessments on a regular basis after the project.
- Widely disseminated feasibility and benefits of wind energy technology applications to potential users in the country.
- Established market for locally made SWES units and promoted both domestically and abroad.
- Compliance of locally made SWES units with internationally acceptable quality and performance standards.
- Improved manufacturing of locally made SWES units towards internationally accepted production practices and standards.
- Installed, operated and monitored optimally designed and manufactured SWES units in selected sites.
- Integration of energy planning and policy making into the country's development planning system.
Project Status:Under Implementation
Barrier Removal for the Widespread Commercialization of Energy-Efficient CFC-Free Refrigerators in China
Implementing Agency:UNOPS/China National Environmental Protection Agency
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:State Environmental Protection Administration of China (SEPA), UNOPS/China National Environmental Protection Agency; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs; China Ministry of Finance (MOF); SEPA Foreign Economic Cooperation Office; China National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC); China State General Administration for Quality Supervision, Inspection, and Quarantine (AQSIQ); China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS); China State Administration of Internal Trade (SAIT); China Household Electric Appliance Association (CHEAA); China Household Electric Appliance Research Institute (CHEARI); China Certification Center for Energy Conservation Products (CECP); Collaborative labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP: University of Maryland Center for Environmental Energy Engineering (UMd CEEE)
From 1980 to 1995, residential power use rose from 3% to 12% of the total electricity consumption in China. This growth has been driven by an explosive increase in household appliance use in which refrigerators account for approximately half of all electricity consumption in urban households. Production of household refrigerators in China has doubled since 1990, rising from 4.63 million units in 1990 to 9.28 million in 1996, making China the country with the second highest number of refrigerators in the world.
Supported by Global Environment Facility (GEF), the project has improved energy efficiency and reduced GHG emissions by removing barriers to the widespread commercialization of energy-efficient refrigerators. It successfully combined elements of “technology push” by providing a combination of training, technical resources and financial incentives to induce refrigerator manufacturers to increase the efficiency of the household refrigerators they produce; and “market pull” by preparing and developing the consumer market through a combination of standards, labeling, an information campaign, to accept and purchase in quantity the energy-efficient refrigerators produced.
UNDP’s partners on this project included the State Environmental Protection Administration, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 16 refrigerator manufacturers and 10 compressors manufacturers. The participating manufacturers produced 70% of refrigerators and compressors in China.
Achievements of the project include:
- An increase of nearly 29% in the weighted-average efficiency of household refrigerators produced in China between 1999 and 2005, as well as impressive improvements in refrigeration compressor efficiency.
- Reduction of 11 million tonnes of CO2 emissions by 2005, and will result in a total of 42 million tonnes of CO2 emission reduction by 2010.
- Cumulative CO2 emissions reduction over the life of the project total 170 million tonnes of CO2 for refrigerators produced through 2005 and 630 million tonnes of CO2 for refrigerators produced through 2010 will be reduced.
- Successful implementation of an award winning public awareness campaign on energy efficient refrigerators.
UNDP China: +86 (10) 8532 0800 or by email at email@example.com
Project Status:Completed in December 2006
Implementing Agency:World Bank
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:World Bank, Argentine Republic
The development objective of the Energy Efficiency Project is to increase the efficiency in the use of energy by developing a sustainable and growing market for energy efficiency services and equipment in Argentina.
The project consists of three components: the first is development of the Argentina Energy Efficiency Fund.
This includes two activities: (a) the development of a pipeline of energy efficiency projects, to be financed through a grant facility; and (b) the development of the Argentina Energy Efficiency Fund (AEEF).
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:
Since 1978, China has grown by around 9% per annum. It has lifted 400 million people out of poverty and become the world’s fourth largest economy. But it remains a developing country with GDP per capita of $1,740 and 135 million people still living on less than $1/day. And its unprecedented growth has led to it becoming one of the most environmentally stressed countries in the world. In particular, China will soon be the world’s top emitter of GHGs.
Climate change presents a challenge to global achievement of MDGs and sustaining hard won gains of developing countries. Given implications for development, climate change mitigation and adaptation have become a primary challenge and the ability of the world to avoid future crises rests on the ability of China to take targeted actions to mitigate climate change. This programme implements the new National Strategy through national policy/legal measures and improved local capacities and partnerships for financing and technology. It aims to ensure that vulnerable communities– including the world’s biggest rural population – can adapt to climate impacts.
The programme seeks to deliver a shift in climate change policies in China, in both public and private sectors, and to develop innovative models and pilot projects requested by our Chinese partners with a view to scaling-up in the future. Through the resulting national policies and local models, climate risks will increasingly be mainstreamed into development, and adaptation actions will be commenced in priority provinces and sectors.
There are three key outcomes under the programme:
**1)** Mainstreaming climate change mitigation and adaptation into national and sub-national policies, planning and investment frameworks.
1.1. Improved policies and partnerships at national level to mainstream climate change mitigation and adaptation into policy frameworks.
1.2. UN-business partnerships and new ‘green’ financing mechanisms to mainstream climate change and energy into investment frameworks and business practices.
**2)** Innovative partnerships and technologies to increase local access to sustainable energy.
2.1. Innovative models at local level for energy efficiency.
2.2. Innovative models at local level for renewable energy and clean coal.
**3)** Accelerated action by China on climate change adaptation.
3.1. Climate proofing of poverty reduction programmes in less developed areas of Western China.
3.2. Policies and capacities developed to manage environmental health issues from climate change.
3.3. Capacities enhanced and policies developed for understanding and adapting to impacts of water supply changes on China’s environment and development.
3.4. Enhanced strategies for climate proofed and environmentally sound agricultural production.
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:
To better coordinate existing and planned assistance to infrastructure, the Pacific Region Infrastructure Facility (PRIF) is being established. AusAID is providing funding for REEEP's activities in the Pacific region for 3 years from 2008/09.
Through PRIF, AusAID is working with other donors and organisations in the region to provide support for increased and equitable access to reliable and affordable energy.
Qatar's Second Human Development Report underscores major environmental challenges that Qatar faces and that need to be appropriately resolved, particularly achieving water security, reducing carbon emissions and increasing energy efficiency, and mitigating risks that threaten the safety of the marine environment. The Report argues that assessing the severity of risks and handling required change will entail mobilizing resources, coordinating efforts and putting appropriate policy and regulatory frameworks in place.
- Agriculture/Food Security
- Water Resources
- Public Health
- Land Resources
Potential Adaptation Measures
El escenario bioclimático de la línea base fue construido a partir de la zona de vida elaboradas por De la Cruz; entre el escenario base y las zonas de vida se presentan diferencias en el tipo y cobertura vegetal. El escenario de la línea base es una aproximación conceptual donde se presentan zonas bioclimáticas identificadas y definidas a partir de datos del clima proporcionados por los escenarios climáticos.