UNDP/GEF supported CBA Community Based Adaptation Project Pilot Sites: University of Namibia – Ogongo Campus: The Sweet-stem Sorghum Research

Summary:

The Community-Based Adaptation Programme (CBA) is a five-year United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) global initiative funded by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF). UNDP works with a number of partners including the United Nations Volunteers and the GEF Small Grants Programme (SGP). Initial CBA investments have been made in 20 communities in the northern parts of Namibia (i.e. Omusati, Oshana, Ohangwena, Oshikoto and Kavango Regions). Climate models suggest these areas are particularly vulnerable and face significant climate change risks,both at present and in future. To facilitate uptake of CBA strategies, one project focuses on research into sweet-stem sorghum varieties that are better suited to altered climatic conditions. The purpose is to cultivate one variety that is not only stronger, but also presents the ideal mix of multi-purpose applications, such as food, fodder/silage and sugar extract for ethanol (biofuel). The project pursues multifaceted objectives of food security, environmental sustainability and universal education. These objectives address the three Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 1, 2, and 7. Now entering its final stage, the researchers are focusing on three remaining sorghum varieties. One successful variety will be commercially distributed in the SGP-CBA pilot areas in Namibia.

Adaptation Experience:

There are various Community Based Adaptation (CBA) projects in Namibia. The particular project discussed here uses a non-governmental organisation called Creative Entrepreneurs Solutions to implement CBA measures through self-help groups.

Results and Learning:

According to a recent field visit by an independent documenter, the research into sweet-stem sorghum varieties at the Ogongo Campus achieved numerous intended results. On one tenth of a hectare, eight sweet-stem sorghum varieties were grown to select one variety that has the optimal balance of grain, bio-mass and sugar content. The research established that not all varieties were suitable for uptake as multi-purpose crop. Yet, the trial delivered three varieties with a promising combination of grain, biomass and sugar, and also endurance to withstand heavy rain. These three varieties were part of an on-farm trial, specifically focusing on the successful delivery of silage. The farmers involved received training at the University of Namibia (UNAM) on how to farm these varieties. Subsequently, the farmers would produce silage and feed a control group of goats to test results. This trial, however, failed because of this year’s extreme floods. However, the three varieties will be tested further and will form part of new on-farm trials. Ultimately, one crop variety will be selected for distribution within the SGP-CBA and the wider northern area of Namibia, to plant at the household level. This crop will make a simple, but significant contribution towards food security, poverty alleviation and a reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. The different purposes of the crop are: food, fodder for livestock, chicken feed, and silage for the dry season and sugar extract for ethanol/biofuel. Another possible use for the sugar extract is in fruit juices. The project demonstrates a need for training of farmers in processing for these different applications.[Refer to the attached document for full Results and Learning.]

Sustainability:

The results will be sustainable once the best variety is selected. First, future trials and subsequent cultivation of such a variety will provide evidence to support the hypothesis that multi-purpose crops can augment household income and sustainability on various levels and strengthen the climate change response, as well as other national development objectives. Once successfully tested, the small-scale farmers will continue to plant or cultivate the best variety.

[Refer to the attached document for further details.]

Replication:

Replicability is ensured by distributing the seeds of the successful variety across the Northern regions for free, and subsequently at a subsidized price. The research also ties in with an Africa-wide trial including countries like Zambia and Kenya. It could, therefore be replicated in other areas or on other crops. Multi-disciplinary cooperation through ICRISAT, which is kept abreast of developments in Ogongo, will aid this purpose. ICRISAT currently looks at multiplying the seeds of multi-purpose crops so that they do not become hybrid and infertile. Namibia, as an advanced country, has the potential to serve as a replication model. The results of the trial can be shared with countries with similar climatic conditions, which could duplicate the outcomes. Finally increased yields and income could facilitate further cultivation and initiate the long-awaited ‘green revolution’ in Africa. An agreement over REDD Plus could further enhance agro forestry.

Funding Source:
GEF-SPA

Mozambique - National Communication

Summary:
Key Vulnerabilities
  • Agriculture/Food Security
  • Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems
  • Water Resources
  • Land Resources
  • Disasters
  • Biodiversity
Potential Adaptation Measures

Agriculture and Food Security

  • Switch to different cultivars
  • Improve and conserve soils
  • Agricultural research and transfer of technology
  • Establish seed banks

Water Resources

  • Increase water supply, e.g.

Ghana - National Communication

Summary:
Key Vulnerabilities
  • Agriculture/Food Security
  • Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems
  • Water Resources
Potential Adaptation Measures

Agriculture and Food Security

  • Educational & outreach activities to change management practices to those suited to climate change
  • Switch to different cultivars
  • Improve pest and disease forecast and control

Water Resources

  • Increase water supply, e.g. by using groundwater, building reservoirs, improving or stabilizing watershed management, desalination
  • Decrease water demands, e.g.

El Salvador - National Communication

Summary:
Key Vulnerabilities
  • Agriculture/Food Security
  • Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems
Potential Adaptation Measures

Agriculture and Food Security

  • Educational & outreach activities to change management practices to those suited to climate change
  • Switch to different cultivars
  • Improve and conserve soils
  • Develop new crops
  • Develop and introduce policy measures, including taxes, subsidies, facilitation of free market
  • Develop early warning systems and disaster preparedness

Water Resources

  • Increase water supply, e.g.

Barbados - National Communication

Summary:
Key Vulnerabilities
  • Agriculture/Food Security
  • Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems
  • Water Resources
  • Fisheries
  • Disasters
  • Soils
  • Tourism
  • Biodiversity
Potential Adaptation Measures

Agriculture and Food Security

  • Switch to different cultivars
  • Improve and conserve soils
  • Enhance irrigation efficiency and/or expand irrigation
  • Agricultural research and transfer of technology
  • Develop new crops
  • Improve pest and disease forecast and control

Water Resources

  • Increase water supply, e.g.

Bangladesh - National Communication

Summary:
Key Vulnerabilities
  • Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems
  • Water Resources
  • Public Health
Potential Adaptation Measures

Agriculture and Food Security

  • Educational & outreach activities to change management practices to those suited to climate change
  • Switch to different cultivars
  • Improve and conserve soils
  • Enhance irrigation efficiency and/or expand irrigation
  • Agricultural research and transfer of technology
  • Develop new crops
  • Develop early warning systems and disaster preparedness
  • Improve pest and disease forecast and control

Water Resour

Azerbaijan - National Communication

Summary:
Key Vulnerabilities
  • Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems
  • Water Resources
  • Agriculture and Food Security
Potential Adaptation Measures

Agriculture and Food Security

  • Educational & outreach activities to change management practices to those suited to climate change
  • Switch to different cultivars
  • Enhance irrigation efficiency and/or expand irrigation

Water Resources

  • Increase water supply, e.g. by using groundwater, building reservoirs, improving or stabilizing watershed management, desalination
  • Decrease water demands, e.g.

Armenia - National Communication

Summary:

Key Vulnerabilities

  • Agriculture/Food Security
  • Water Resources
  • Public Health
  • Wildlife

Potential Adaptation Measures

Agriculture and Food Security

  • Educational & outreach activities to change management practices to those suited to climate change
  • Switch to different cultivars
  • Enhance irrigation efficiency and/or expand irrigation
  • Establish seed banks

Water Resources

  • Increase water supply, e.g. by using groundwater, building reservoirs, improving or stabilizing watershed management, desalination
  • Decrease water demands, e.g.

Antigua and Barbuda - National Communication

Summary:

Key Vulnerabilities

  • Agriculture/Food Security
  • Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems
  • Water Resources
  • Public Health
  • Fisheries
  • Disasters
  • Tourism

Potential Adaptation Measures

Agriculture and Food Security

  • Switch to different cultivars
  • Enhance irrigation efficiency and/or expand irrigation
  • Develop new crops

Water Resources

  • Increase water supply, e.g. by using groundwater, building reservoirs, improving or stabilizing watershed management, desalination
  • Decrease water demands, e.g.

Albania - National Communication

Summary:
Albania - Second National Communication - 23 November 2009
Key Vulnerabilities
  • Water Resources
  • Agriculture
  • Forestry
  • Energy
  • Tourism and Settlements
Potential Adaptation Measures

Water Resources

  • Construction of a series of dams parallel and perpendicular to the coastal line and refilling
  • Supplying the sea with the sediments to restore beaches (example Sochi/Batumi, Black Sea)
  • Building with “nature” techniques

Agriculture

  • Change in planting dates and cultivars
  • Implementation of practices to conserve moisture (agro-technique measures like conservation tillage to protect the soil from wind and water erosion; retain moisture by reducing evaporation and increasing infiltration of precipitation into the soil;
  • Biotechnology -development of “designer cultivars” to adapt to stresses (heat, water, pests and disease, etc.) of climate change

Forestry

  • Preparing and applying of the seed stands and seed stand orchards designs to have the selected seeds of more adapted species to climate changes.
  • Experiment the adapted indigene and exotic forest species to rehabilitate burned different forest terrains.
  • Research on Optimum Land Use Planning, erosion protection, forest protection, biodiversity, conservation, fire hazards, and climate change capacity

Energy

  • Increasing generation from new very efficient combined cycle thermal power plants in order to support reduction of all HPPs in general and Drini River Cascade in particular from the climate change;
  • Planning of the rehabilitation of Fierza, Komani and Vau i Dejes HPPs (Drini River Cascade) shall take into consideration the climate change, which is going to reduce their production and their availability;
  • Planning of the construction of small hydro power plants shall take into consideration the climate effect.
  • Regional development programs, plans and policies and climate change concerns in the Drini River Cascade integrated
  • Planning of the construction of new medium and large hydro power plants shall take into consideration the climate change, which is going to reduce their production and their availability;
  • Establishment of capacities to monitor and respond to anticipated climate change impacts in the Drin River Cascade at the institutional and community levels.

Tourism and Settlement