The hydrologic stability of the Andean region depends on the services provided by micro-ecosystems found around and above 4000 masl (paramos, wetlands and glaciers). Extremes in temperatures and an increase of precipitation and periods of drought will affect the region as a whole, exacerbating the intensity of natural disasters. Such conditions endanger food security and disrupt the fragile hydrologic stability of the region, thereby jeopardizing the provision of water for downstream South American populations. This project proposes a three-pronged appr
Implementing Agency:Brazil's Ministry of Science and Technology
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:Brazil's Ministry of Science and Technology, Copersucar, Termiska-Processer, European Commission, Swedish National Energy Administration, CENBIO, University of Campinas, Centro Tecnico Aero-Espacial, Instituto Technologico de Aeronautica Sao Jose dos Campos, ESALQ, Dedini, Codistil, CPFL
Although 95% of Brazil’s electricity is produced by hydroelectric power, few suitable sites remain for future hydroelectric projects. Where sites with hydroelectric potential do exist – generally in the Amazon region – there are usually economic and environmental considerations preventing their development.
- Determine the quantity, quality and cost of sugar cane bagasse/trash biomass available for electrical generation.
- Resolve engineering, business and economic barriers to the establishment of a commercial electrical generation demonstration plant using biomass-gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) technology and running on sugar cane bagasse and trash.
Selected Project Results
- The project conducted analysis to show that sugarcane trash couple be recovered in suitable quantities, quality and cost for use as a supplemental fuel to bagasse for power generation. This was the first study to provide reliable results on which confident investment decisions could be made, and has already inspired some mill managers to begin using trash for energy production. (Four mills are already using trash (105,000 tons per year) in their conventional boilers as a direct result of the project, and three others are evaluating ways to recover trash on a large-scale basis.)
- Research also showed that biomass-gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) technology, with trash supplementing bagasse, could increase the production of electricity by a sugarcane mill by 500%. Electricity production could be increased from 50 to 60 kWh/ton cane processed (with conventional high pressure steam turbine technology firing only bagasse) to 250 to 300 kWh/ton of cane processed with a BIG/GT system using both bagasse and trash.
- Project analysis suggested that ten 30MW generating units would have to be built before energy production costs fell to levels acceptable to the Brazilian market.
- Considering that existing laws and regulations are forcing the phase out of cane burning and the Brazil’s sugar cane crops amounts to around 315 million tons/year it is estimated the use of BIG/GT technology with sugar cane residues as fuel has the potential to achieve reductions in CO2 emissions in the range of 26 to 40 million tons of CO2 equiv./year, depending on the degree of technology penetration assumed. . If the world’s 1 billion-ton sugar cane industry converted its bagasse and field waste into power, use of nearly 250 million tons of oil could be avoided every year.
- The Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz (CPFL), one of Brazil’s largest private electricity generating companies, has indicated its interest in taking a leading role in phase three of the project which will build a demonstration BIG/GT plant operating on sugarcane residues at a mill in southeast Brazil.
- Since there are some potential benefits to leaving trash on harvested sugarcane fields such as weed control, wind and rain erosion protection, increased soil infiltration of water/reduced soil surface evaporation of water, reduced soil temperatures, and increased soil biological activity, costs and benefits analysis was undertaken and a series of guidelines for trash removal formulated. These guidelines are now being used by some sugarcane owners who have begun collecting trash to use as fuel in existing combustion systems.
- Although co-funding was originally only expected to come from Brazil’s Copersucar, (one of the largest sugar and alcohol producers in the world) other international donors became interested in the project and contributed funding – EU ($575,000) and Sweden’s NUTEK ($340,000)
- The project’s study of the agricultural and environmental impacts of sugarcane trash recovery has provided information of value to on-going discussions on cane burning regulations
- A Brazilian law passed in 2003, says that after 2006 10% of all new power capacity installed in the country must use renewable energy. Although this cannot be directly attributed to the project it will certainly benefit the project’s future and potential for replication.
- The project produced and distributed eight newsletters and also made many presentations in international conferences and congresses. As a result there is now a widespread awareness of the potential of sugarcane trash and BIG/GT technology among government agencies, private sector industry, universities and NGOs in Brazil and in sugarcane industries worldwide.
- The project was presented at the 24th ISSCT (International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists) Congress in Australia. As a result Brazil became recognized as a world leader in BIG/GT technology.
- Information and idea exchanges have taken place with similar projects such as the WBP-Brazilian Woodchips Project, a Australian gasification project and with several research projects in different Universities in Brazil and abroad.
Project Status:Completed (1997 - April 2003)
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:Vice-Ministry of Electricity, Alternative Energies and Telecommunications (VEEAT); FONDESIF - Fondo de Desarrollo del Sistema Financiero y de Apoyo al Sector Productivo
At the start of the project more than 575,000 homes (71.7 per cent) in Bolivia's rural areas had no electricity - a sign of poverty and social exclusion. Without electricity the population is denied equal opportunities of economic and social development.
- The establishment of 22 electrification projects providing renewable energy sources
- Implementation of training programmes for:
- Students and technical faculties
- Local technicians
- System users
- Financial stakeholders
- Renewable energy sources provided to 200,000 homes in rural areas of Bolivia
- Saving of nearly 21,000 million tones of CO2 over a 25-year period
- Improved quality of life through economic and social development
Project Status:Completed (1999 - 2005)
Primary Beneficiaries:200,000 homes in rural areas of Bolivia
Enhancing resilience of communities to the adverse effects of climate change on food security, in Pichincha Province and the Jubones River basin
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:UNDP, World Food Programme, Ministry of Environment in coordination with Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Aquaculture and Fisheries, Commonwealth of the River Jubones Basin and Provincial Government of Pichincha
The Proposed Project:
- Increased knowledge to manage climate change risks affecting food security in targeted cantons in Pichincha Province and River Jubones basin
- Strengthen adaptive capacity to respond to the impacts of climate change, including variability in targeted cantons in Pichincha Province and MCRJ
Source: Project Proposal, 2011
1.1 Increased awareness of communities on climate change risks and food security related risks
1.2 Secured ownership of adaptation measures in communities in targeted cantons
1.3 Increased knowledge to manage climate change and risk, including climate variability affecting food security
2.1 Increased adaptive capacity and ecosystem resilience in targeted rural communities
2.2 Increased capacity at communities and institutional level to manage climate change risk in targeted cantons
Source: Project Proposal, 2011
Project Status:Under Implementation
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
TCP/RLA/3112/3217 technical cooperation project was implemented between April 2008 and August 2010 with the aim of helping the Andean countries in reducing disaster risks in the agricultural sector. The goal is to reach rural and social development in the region through the local management of natural resources.
Incorporating Weather Index Insurance with Territorial Approaches to Climate Change (TACC) in Northern PeruSubmitted by naomi.sleeper on Tue, 2011-02-08 20:01
Extreme El Niño flooding events occur on a regular basis in northern Peru, particularly in Piura. Even with advanced warning, poor households struggle to manage a risk as large as that posed by El Niño flooding; they lose their productive assets that defined their livelihoods, and as a result endure unrecoverable economic hardship.
TT-Pilot (GEF-4): Renewable CO2 Capture and Storage from Sugar Fermentation Industry in Sao Paulo State
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:Brazil Ministry of Science and Technology
Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is considered as a very promising potential technology to mitigate climate change, it involves the separation of CO2 from industrial and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. Most efforts carried out to date deal with CCS related to fossil fuel use and require large investments, even at the demonstration level. CCS is usually a complex process since carbon capture may involve chemical and physical processes and requires energy.
Component A: Establishment of Enabling Environment for RCCS Technology Transfer
Component B: RCCS Technology Demonstration
Component C: Capacity Building on RCCS Technology Application
This project proposes the development of RCCS from CO2 emitted from sugar fermentation in a demonstration plant at a sugar/ethanol mill in Sao Paulo state. During fermentation, gaseous is released in 100% concentration and free of other gases (Nitrogen, CO) and impurities (e.g. sulphur, hydrocarbons, and acids) for underground storage. Thus, this project aims to store already clean CO2 emissions from sugar fermentation underground in available saline formations (see figure below showing storage prospectivity in the region of Sao Paulo).
Deputy Executive Coordinator
Climate Change Regional Technical Advisor
Primary Beneficiaries:Industry and workers
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:Ministry of Environment (national level), Regional Governments of Cusco and Apurimac (regional level) and facilitated by a consortium led by Intercooperation, PREDES and Libelula.
The specific objective of PACC is to promote the
implementation of climate change adaptation strategies
and measures by the local population and public and
private institutions, as well as to capitalize on knowledge
and allow dialogues on public policies at different levels.
PACC works at both the local and national level:
At local and regional level PACC is:
a) Developing scientific knowledge while revaluing traditional
b) promoting local pilot projects on climate change adaptation,
c) promoting the formulation of adaptation strategies and their mainstreaming, as well as instruments for development planning and public investment.
At national and global level PACC is::
a) Using and applying information on global climate scenarios,
b) supporting the country's efforts in international climate change negotiations,
c) supporting the development of a national framework for the implementation of a National Plan of adaptation to Climate Change. The implementation of this dual dynamic will be fostered through coherence and linkages between local and regional policies and processes, promoted in accordance
with the established national policy framework on climate change adaptation. In turn, this policy is expected to incorporate knowledge from local and regional experiences in
adapting to climate variability and to climate change.
The research in PACC takes place at two levels: regional (in Apurimac and Cusco) and local (through prioritised watersheds within these regions). Research is carried out by Peruvian regional (sub-national) and national technical-scientific institutions, which receive support from Swiss scientific
entities. The studies cover a wide range of themes linked to the problem of climate change, and will contribute to a better understanding of its impacts on the rural populations of Cusco and Apurimac and their livelihoods.
PACC considers how political and participative processes at regional level can incorporate climate change scenarios and adaptation demands. With this in mind two regional Climate Change Technical Groups have been formed in the PACC regions.
These Technical Groups provide a multi-institutional working platform for the development of Regional Climate Change Strategies. Such scheme can be adjusted to local levels (watersheds), in areas where existing discussion platforms are part of their decision making process.
1. Knowing vulnerabilities: Assessment of vulnerability and
adaptation conditions to climate variability in Cusco and Apurimac regions, developed with the participation of authorities,institutions and affected population.
2. Monitor and inform
Regional information system for climate change adaptation
in Cusco and Apurimac regions.
Adaptation measures implemented, in agreement with local and
4. Learn and to engage in political dialogue
Public policies at local, regional and national levels.
International negotiation processes contain proposals generated by PACC´s actions.
Project Status:Implementation (2009-2012)
Implementing Agency and Partnering Organizations:Executive Commission for Transport in Santiago - CGTS
Although Santiago’s transport system at appraisal in 2003 was less chaotic than systems in other large Latin American cities, air pollution was acute and the transport sector suffered from a number of serious problems, which needed to be addressed.
1. Promotion of bicycle use
2. Modernizing the bus system
2.1 Technical assistance for evaluating the economic and environmental impact of clean bus technologies
2.2 Implementation of the framework for bus reform
2.3 Renewal of the bus fleet
3. Strategic Environmental Assessment
4. Technical Assistance and Analytical Support: land-use patterns and internalization of costs
4.1 Assessment of land-use incentives and policies to reduce motorized travel
4.1.1 Developing the Central Ring of Santiago (Anillo Central)
4.1.2 School location
4.1.3 Housing Policy
4.2 Reducing Motorized Traffic
4.2.1 Traffic Calming at City Center
4.2.2 Congestion pricing
4.3 Travel optimization
4.4 Emission compensation (Decontamination Bonds) scheme
Outcome 1: Urban Transport Plan for Santiago implemented.
Outcome 2: Modal share of public transport maintained.
Outcome 3: Land-use policies in place to favor the reduction of the average trip length.
Outcome 4: Barriers for introducing clean technologies for transport removed/incentives introduced.
Outcome 5: NMT trips increased.
Outcome 6: Growth in cars-km reduced.
Outcome 7: Air quality indicators improved in spite of economic growth.
Outcome 8: Reduced carbon intensity per travelled km.
Outcome 9: Evidence of behavioral change towards a rational transport demand.
Comisión General de Transporte de Santiago - CGTS
Address: New York 9, Santiago Centro
Contact Person: Aldo Signorelli
Tel: 562 428 7900
Fax: 562 428 7900
Project Status:Finalizing Procurement
Ecuador faces a variety of climate change risks associated with changes in temperature and precipitation, as well as possible alterations to ocean currents. Given its geographical location and rugged topography, Ecuador is a highly vulnerable country to impacts of climate change (UNFCCC First National Communication, Quito, 2000). Periodic El Niño events, particularly those of 1982-83 and 1997-98, have demonstrated the catastrophic effects of climate variability in the country. This high degree of exposure, combined with the vulnerability of key economic sectors such as agriculture, health, energy, water resources, coastal resources, fisheries, infrastructure and tourism, reinforces the notion that Ecuador is a country particularly vulnerable to climate change.